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\begin{array}{l}{\text { Which of the following areas of study focuses on }} \\ {\text { the exchange of energy, organisms, and materials }} \\ {\text { between ecosystems? }} \\ {\text { (A) organismal ecology }} \\ {\text { (B) landscape ecology }} \\ {\text { (C) ecosystem ecology }} \\ {\text { (D) community ecology }}\end{array}

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Rikhil M.

Numerade Educator

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\begin{array}{l}{\text { Which lake zone would be absent in a very shallow lake? }} \\ {\text { (A) benthic zone }} \\ {\text { (B) aphotic zone }} \\ {\text { (C) pelagic zone }} \\ {\text { (D) littoral zone }}\end{array}

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Rikhil M.

Numerade Educator

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\begin{array}{l}{\text { Which of the following is characteristic of most terrestrial }} \\ {\text { biomes? }} \\ {\text { (A) a distribution predicted almost entirely by rock and soil }} \\ {\text { patterns }} \\ {\text { (B) clear boundaries between adjacent biomes }} \\ {\text { (C) vegetation demonstrating vertical layering }} \\ {\text { (D) cold winter months }}\end{array}

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Rikhil M.

Numerade Educator

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\begin{array}{l}{\text { The oceans affect the biosphere in all of the following ways }} \\ {\text { except }} \\ {\text { (A) producing a substantial amount of the biosphere. }} \\ {\text { (B) removing carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. }} \\ {\text { (C) moderating the climate of terrestrial biomes. }} \\ {\text { (D) regulating the } \mathrm{pH} \text { of freshwater biomes and terrestrial }} \\ {\text { groundwater. }}\end{array}

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Rikhil M.

Numerade Educator

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\begin{array}{l}{\text { eruptions depends on dispersal. }} \\ {\text { (C) Dispersal occurs only on an evolutionary time scale. }} \\ {\text { (D) The ability to disperse can expand the geographic distribu- }} \\ {\text { tion of a species. }}\end{array}

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Rikhil M.

Numerade Educator

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\begin{array}{l}{\text { When climbing a mountain, we can observe transitions in }} \\ {\text { biological communities that are analogous to the changes }} \\ {\text { (A) in biomes at different latitudes. }} \\ {\text { (B) in different depths in the ocean. }} \\ {\text { (C) in a community through different seasons. }} \\ {\text { (D) in an ecosystem as it evolves over time. }}\end{array}

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Rikhil M.

Numerade Educator

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\begin{array}{l}{\text { Suppose that the number of bird species is determined mainly }} \\ {\text { by the number of vertical strata found in the environment. }} \\ {\text { If so, in which of the following biomes would you find the }} \\ {\text { greatest number of bird species? }} \\ {\text { (A) tropical rain forest }} \\ {\text { (B) savanna }} \\ {\text { (C) desert }} \\ {\text { (D) temperate broadleaf forest }}\end{array}

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Rikhil M.

Numerade Educator

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\begin{array}{l}{\text { WHAT IF? If the direction of Earth's rotation reversed, the }} \\ {\text { most predictable effect would be }} \\ {\text { (A) a big change in the length of the year. }} \\ {\text { (B) winds blowing from west to east along the equator. }} \\ {\text { (C) a loss of seasonal variation at high latitudes. }} \\ {\text { (D) the elimination of ocean currents. }}\end{array}

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Rikhil M.

Numerade Educator

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\begin{array}{l}{\text { INTERPRET THE DATA After examining Figure } 52.19, \text { you }} \\ {\text { decide to study feeding relationships among sea otters, sea }} \\ {\text { urchins, and kelp. You know that sea otters prey on sea urchins }} \\ {\text { and that urchins eat kelp. At four coastal sites, you measure }}\end{array}

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\begin{array}{l}{\text { kelp abundance. Then you spend one day at each site and mark }} \\ {\text { whether otters are present or absent every } 5 \text { minutes during }} \\ {\text { the day. Graph kelp abundance (on the } y \text { -axis) versus otter }} \\ {\text { density (on the } x \text { -axis), using the data below. Then formulate a }} \\ {\text { hypothesis to explain any pattern you observe. }}\end{array}

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Rikhil M.

Numerade Educator

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\begin{array}{l}{\text { EVOLUTION CONNECTION Discuss how the distribution of a }} \\ {\text { species can be affected both by its evolutionary history and by }} \\ {\text { ecological factors. Could ongoing evolutionary change also }} \\ {\text { affect its distribution? Explain. }}\end{array}

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Rikhil M.

Numerade Educator

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\begin{array}{l}{\text { SCleNTIFIC INQUIRY Jens Clausen and colleagues, at the }} \\ {\text { Carnegie Institution of Washington, studied how the size of }} \\ {\text { yarrow plants (Achillea lanulosa) growing on the slopes of the }} \\ {\text { Sierra Nevada varied with elevation. They found that plants }} \\ {\text { from low elevations were generally taller than plants from high }} \\ {\text { elevations, as shown in the diagram. }}\end{array}

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Rikhil M.

Numerade Educator

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\begin{array}{l}{\text { SCleNTIFIC INQUIRY Jens Clausen and colleagues, at the }} \\ {\text { Carnegie Institution of Washington, studied how the size of }} \\ {\text { yarrow plants (Achillea lanulosa) growing on the slopes of the }} \\ {\text { Sierra Nevada varied with elevation. They found that plants }} \\ {\text { from low elevations were generally taller than plants from high }} \\ {\text { elevations, as shown in the diagram. }}\end{array}

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\begin{array}{l}{\text { Clausen and colleagues proposed two hypotheses to explain }} \\ {\text { this variation within a species: (1) There are genetic differences }} \\ {\text { between populations of plants found at different elevations. }}\end{array}

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\begin{array}{l}{\text { (2) The species has developmental flexibility and can assume }} \\ {\text { tall or short growth forms, depending on local abiotic factors. }} \\ {\text { If you had seeds from yarrow plants found at low and high }} \\ {\text { elevations, how would you test these hypotheses? }}\end{array}

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\begin{array}{l}{\text { WRITE ABOUT A THEME: INTERACTIONS Global warming is }} \\ {\text { occurring rapidly in arctic marine and terrestrial ecosystems. }} \\ {\text { The reflective white snow and ice cover are melting quickly }} \\ {\text { and extensively, uncovering darker-colored ocean water, plants, }} \\ {\text { and rocks. In a short essay }(100-150 \text { words), explain how this }} \\ {\text { process might exemplify positive feedback. }}\end{array}

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Rikhil M.

Numerade Educator

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\begin{array}{l}{\text { If you were to hike up Mount }} \\ {\text { Killimanjaro in Tanzania, you }} \\ {\text { would pass through several }} \\ {\text { habitats, including savanna at }} \\ {\text { the base, forest on the slopes, }} \\ {\text { and alpine tundra near the }} \\ {\text { top. Explain how such diverse }} \\ {\text { habitats can be found at one }} \\ {\text { location near the equator. }}\end{array}

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Rikhil M.

Numerade Educator