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Introductory Chemistry

Steven S. Zumdahl, Donald J. DeCoste

Chapter 4

Chemical Foundations: Elements, Atoms, and Ions


Problem 1

What were the four fundamental substances postulated by the Greeks?

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Problem 2

Who was the first scientist generally accredited with putting the study of chemistry on a firm experimental basis?

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Problem 3

In addition to his important work on the properties of gases, what other valuable contributions did Robert Boyle make to the development of the study of chemistry?

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Problem 4

How many elements are presently known? How many of these elements occur naturally, and how many are synthesized artificially? What are the most common elements present on the earth?

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Problem 5

What are the five most abundant elements (by mass) in the earth’s crust, oceans, and atmosphere?

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Problem 6

Read the “Chemistry in Focus” segment Trace Elements: Small but Crucial, and answer the following
a. What is meant by the term trace element?
b. Name two essential trace elements in the body and list their function(s).

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