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Campbell Biology

Lisa A. Urry

Chapter 56

Conservation Biology and Global Change

Educators


Problem 1

Knowledge/Comprehension
One characteristic that distinguishes a population in an extinction vortex from most other populations is that
(A) it is a rare, top-level predator.
(B) its effective population size is lower than its total population size.
(C) its genetic diversity is very low.
(D) it is not well adapted to edge conditions.

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Problem 2

Knowledge/Comprehension
The main cause of the increase in the amount of CO2 in Earth's atmosphere over the past 150 years is
(A) increased worldwide primary production.
(B) increased worldwide standing crop.
(C) an increase in the amount of infrared radiation absorbed by the atmosphere.
(D) the burning of larger amounts of wood and fossil fuels.

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Problem 3

Knowledge/Comprehension
What is the single greatest threat to biodiversity?
(A) overharvesting of commercially important species
(B) habitat alteration, fragmentation, and destruction
(C) introduced species that compete with native species
(D) novel pathogens

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Problem 4

Application/Analysis
Which of the following is a consequence of biological magnification?
(A) Toxic chemicals in the environment pose greater risk to top-level predators than to primary consumers.
(B) Populations of top-level predators are generally smaller than populations of primary consumers.
(C) The biomass of producers in an ecosystem is generally higher than the biomass of primary consumers.
(D) Only a small portion of the energy captured by producers is transferred to consumers.

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Problem 5

Application/Analysis
Which of the following strategies would most rapidly increase the genetic diversity of a population in an extinction vortex?
(A) Establish a reserve that protects the population's habitat.
(B) Introduce new individuals transported from other populations of the same species.
(C) Sterilize the least fit individuals in the population.
(D) Control populations of the endangered population's predators and competitors.

Grant C.
Numerade Educator

Problem 6

Application/Analysis
Of the following statements about protected areas that have been established to preserve biodiversity, which one is not correct?
(A) About 25% of Earth's land area is now protected.
(B) National parks are one of many types of protected areas.
(C) Management of a protected area should be coordinated with management of the land surrounding the area.
(D) It is especially important to protect biodiversity hot spots.

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Problem 7

Synthesis/Evaluation
DRAW IT Suppose that you are managing a forest reserve, and one of your goals is to protect local populations of woodland birds from parasitism by the brown-headed cowbird. You know that female cowbirds usually do not venture more than about 100 m into a forest and that nest parasitism is reduced when woodland birds nest away from forest edges. The reserve you manage extends about 6,000 m from east to west and 3,000 m from north to south. It is surrounded by a deforested pasture on the west, an agricultural field for 500 m in the southwest corner, and intact forest everywhere else. You must build a road, 10 m by 3,000 m, from the north to the south side of the reserve and construct a maintenance building that will take up 100 $\mathrm{m}^{2}$ in the reserve. Draw a map of the reserve, showing where you would put the road and the building to minimize cowbird intrusion along edges. Explain your reasoning.

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Problem 8

Synthesis/Evaluation
EVOLUTION CONNECTION The fossil record indicates that there have been five mass extinction events in the past 500 million years (see Concept 25.4). Many ecologists think we are on the verge of entering a sixth mass extinction event. Briefly discuss the history of mass extinctions and the length of time it typically takes for species diversity to recover through the process of evolution. Explain why this should motivate us to slow the loss of biodiversity today.

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Problem 9

Synthesis/Evaluation
SCIENTIFIC INOUIRY (a) Estimate the average $\mathrm{CO}_{2}$ concentration in 1975 and in 2012 using data provided in Figure 56.28 . (b) On average, how rapidly did $\mathrm{CO}_{2}$ concentration increase $(\mathrm{ppm} / \mathrm{yr})$ from 1975 to 2012? (c) Estimate the approximate $\mathrm{CO}_{2}$ concentration in 2100, assuming that the $\mathrm{CO}_{2}$ concentration continues to rise as fast as it did from 1975 to $2012 .$ (d) Draw a graph of average $\mathrm{CO}_{2}$ concentration from 1975 to 2012 and then use a dashed line to extend the graph to the year 2100 . (e) Identify the ecological factors and human decisions that might influence the actual rise in $\mathrm{CO}_{2}$ concentration. (f) Discuss how additional scientific data could help societies predict this value

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Problem 10

Synthesis/Evaluation
WRITE ABOUT A THEME: INTERACTIONS One factor favoring rapid population growth by an introduced species is the absence of the predators, parasites, and pathogens that controlled its population in the region where it evolved. In a short essay (100-150 words), explain how evolution by natural selection in a region of introduction would influence the rate at which native predators, parasites, and pathogens attack an introduced species.

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Problem 11

Synthesis/Evaluation
Synthesize Your Knowledge Big cats, such as the Siberian tiger (Panthera tigris altaica) shown here, are one of the most endangered groups of mammals in the world. Based on what you've learned in this chapter, discuss some of the approaches you would use to help preserve them.

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