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Biology 2015

Sylvia S. Mader, Michael Windelspecht

Chapter 15

Darwin and Evolution

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Problem 1

Which of these pairs is mismatched?
a. Charles Darwin—natural selection
b. Linnaeus—classified organisms according to the scala naturae
c. Cuvier—series of catastrophes explains the fossil record
d. Lamarck—uniformitarianism
e. Thomas Malthus—principles of population

Justin I.
Numerade Educator

Problem 2

Which scientist’s information on geology helped support the observations Darwin made during his voyage aboard the HMS Beagle?
a. Erasmus Darwin
b. Georges Cuvier
c. Aristotle
d. Carolus Linnaeus
e. Charles Lyell

Justin I.
Numerade Educator

Problem 3

According to the theory of inheritance of acquired characteristics,
a. if a man loses his hand, then his children will also be missing a hand.
b. changes in phenotype are passed on by way of the genotype to the next generation.
c. organisms are able to bring about a change in their phenotype.
d. evolution is striving toward improving particular traits.
e. All of these are correct.

Justin I.
Numerade Educator

Problem 4

Why was it helpful to Darwin to learn that Lyell thought the Earth was very old?
a. An old Earth has more fossils than a new Earth.
b. It meant there was enough time for evolution to have occurred slowly.
c. There was enough time for the same species to spread out into all continents.
d. Darwin said that artificial selection occurs slowly.
e. All of these are correct.

Justin I.
Numerade Educator

Problem 5

The distribution of organisms across Earth is known as
a. biogeography.
b. uniformitarianism.
c. paleontology.
d. evolution.
e. strata.

Justin I.
Numerade Educator

Problem 6

Organisms
a. compete with other members of their species.
b. differ in fitness.
c. are adapted to their environment.
d. are related by descent from common ancestors.
e. All of these are correct.

BC
Bianca C.
Numerade Educator

Problem 7

Which of the following is not a component of evolution by natural selection?
a. Variation exists within a population.
b. Organisms compete for resources.
c. Individuals have different reproductive success.
d. Organisms adapt due to environmental changes.
e. Species are fixed.

Justin I.
Numerade Educator

Problem 8

A key biogeographical observation made by Darwin was
a. the variation that existed among the Galápagos Island finches.
b. the similarity between the Galápagos Island tortoises.
c. the differences between the Galápagos Island hare and cavy.
d. the difference in the neck lengths of giraffes.
e. All of these are correct.

Justin I.
Numerade Educator

Problem 9

If evolution occurred, we would expect different biogeographical regions with similar environments to
a. all contain the same mix of plants and animals.
b. each have its own specific mix of plants and animals.
c. have plants and animals with similar adaptations.
d. have plants and animals with different adaptations.
e. Both b and c are correct.

Justin I.
Numerade Educator

Problem 10

Humans are able to cause organisms to evolve through which mechanism?
a. artificial selection
b. natural selection
c. fitness
d. paleontology
e. uniformitarianism

Justin I.
Numerade Educator

Problem 11

For questions 11–15, match the evolutionary evidence in the key to the description. Choose more than one answer if correct.
Key:
a. biogeographical evidence
b. fossil evidence
c. biochemical evidence
d. anatomical evidence
e. developmental evidence
It’s possible to trace the evolutionary ancestry of a species.

AM
August M.
Numerade Educator

Problem 12

For questions 11–15, match the evolutionary evidence in the key to the description. Choose more than one answer if correct.
Key:
a. biogeographical evidence
b. fossil evidence
c. biochemical evidence
d. anatomical evidence
e. developmental evidence
A group of related species has homologous structures.

Justin I.
Numerade Educator

Problem 13

For questions 11–15, match the evolutionary evidence in the key to the description. Choose more than one answer if correct.
Key:
a. biogeographical evidence
b. fossil evidence
c. biochemical evidence
d. anatomical evidence
e. developmental evidence
The same types of molecules are found in all living organisms.

Justin I.
Numerade Educator

Problem 14

For questions 11–15, match the evolutionary evidence in the key to the description. Choose more than one answer if correct.
Key:
a. biogeographical evidence
b. fossil evidence
c. biochemical evidence
d. anatomical evidence
e. developmental evidence
All vertebrate embryos have pharyngeal pouches.

Justin I.
Numerade Educator

Problem 15

For questions 11–15, match the evolutionary evidence in the key to the description. Choose more than one answer if correct.
Key:
a. biogeographical evidence
b. fossil evidence
c. biochemical evidence
d. anatomical evidence
e. developmental evidence
Transitional fossils have been found between some major groups of organisms.

Justin I.
Numerade Educator