Campbell Biology

Lisa A. Urry

Chapter 1

Evolution, the Themes of Biology, and Scientific Inquiry



Problem 1

All the organisms on your campus make up
(A) an ecosystem.
(B) a community.
(C) a population.
(D) a taxonomic

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Problem 2

Systems biology is mainly an attempt to
(A) analyze genomes from different species.
(B) simplify complex problems by reducing the system into smaller, less complex units.
(C) understand the behavior of entire biological systems by studying interactions among its component parts.
(D) build high-throughput machines for the rapid acquisition of biological data.

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Problem 3

Which of the following best demonstrates the unity among all
(A) emergent properties
(B) descent with modification
(C) the structure and function of DNA
(D) natural selection

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Problem 4

A controlled experiment is one that
(A) proceeds slowly enough that a scientist can make careful records of the results.
(B) tests experimental and control groups in parallel.
(C) is repeated many times to make sure the results are accurate.
(D) keeps all variables constant.

Michael R.
Numerade Educator

Problem 5

Which of the following statements best distinguishes
hypotheses from theories in science?
(A) Theories are hypotheses that have been proved.
(B) Hypotheses are guesses; theories are correct answers.
(C) Hypotheses usually are relatively narrow in scope; theories have broad explanatory power.
(D) Theories are proved true; hypotheses are often contradicted by experimental results.

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Problem 6

Which of the following is an example of qualitative data?
(A) The fish swam in a zigzag motion.
(B) The contents of the stomach are mixed every 20 seconds.
(C) The temperature decreased from $20^{\circ} \mathrm{C}$ to $15^{\circ} \mathrm{C}$ .
(D) The six pairs of robins hatched an average of three chicks each.

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Numerade Educator

Problem 7

Which sentence best describes the logic of scientific inquiry?
(A) If I generate a testable hypothesis, tests and observations will support it.
(B) If my prediction is correct, it will lead to a testable hypothesis.
(C) If my observations are accurate, they will support my hypothesis.
(D) If my hypothesis is correct, I can expect certain test results.

Michael R.
Numerade Educator

Problem 8

DRAW IT With rough sketches, draw a biological hierarchy
similar to the one in Figure 1.3 but using a coral reef as the
ecosystem, a fish as the organism, its stomach as the organ, and
DNA as the molecule. Include all levels in the hierarchy.

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Problem 9

Evoution connection A typical prokaryotic cell has about
$3,000$ genes in its DNA, while a human cell has almost $21,000$
genes. About $1,000$ of these genes are present in both types of
cells. Based on your understanding of evolution, explain how such different organisms could have this same subset of $1,000$ genes. What sorts of functions might these shared genes have?

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Problem 10

SCENTIIC INQUIRY Based on the results of the mouse coloration case study, suggest another hypothesis researchers might use to further study the role of predators in the natural selection process.

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Problem 11

SCIENTIIC INQUIRY Scientists search the scientific literature
by means of electronic databases such as PubMed, a free online
database maintained by the National Center for Biotechnology
Information. Use PubMed to find the abstract of a scientific
article that Hopi Hoekstra published in 2015 or later.

Barbara K.
Numerade Educator

Problem 12

WRITE ABOUT A THEME: EVOLUTION In a short essay $(100-150$ words), discuss Darwin's view of how natural selection resulted in both unity and diversity of life on Earth. Include in your discussion some of his evidence. (See a suggested grading rubric and tips for writing good essays in the Study Area of
MasteringBiology under "Write About a Theme.")

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Problem 13

Can you pick out the mossy leaf-tailed gecko lying against the tree trunk in this photo? How is the appearance of the gecko a benefit in terms of survival? Given what you learned about evolution, natural selection, and genetic information in this chapter, describe how the gecko's coloration might have evolved.

Michael N.
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