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Algebra 2

Prentice Hall, Basia Kennedy, Dan Ramirez

Chapter 12

Probability And Statistics

Educators


Problem 1

In the game Rock-Paper-Scissors, the scissors cut the paper, the rock dulls the scissors, and the paper covers the rock. Use the results below for Exercises 1 and 2.
Rock-Paper-Scissors
Table cannot copy
$\mathrm{R}=\mathrm{Rock} \quad \mathrm{P}=$ Paper $\quad \mathrm{S}=$ Scissors $\quad$ Bold $=$ Winner
Make a frequency table for the objects played: rock, paper, or scissors.

Tony W.
Numerade Educator

Problem 2

In the game Rock-Paper-Scissors, the scissors cut the paper, the rock dulls the scissors, and the paper covers the rock. Use the results below for Exercises 1 and 2.
Rock-Paper-Scissors
Table cannot copy
$\mathrm{R}=\mathrm{Rock} \quad \mathrm{P}=$ Paper $\quad \mathrm{S}=$ Scissors $\quad$ Bold $=$ Winner
Make a frequency table for the winning players: Player $1,$ Player $2,$ or tie.

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Problem 3

The table shows the frequency of responses to editorials. Find each probability.
$$
\begin{array}{|l|l|l|l|l|l|l|}\hline \text { Number of Responses } & {0} & {1} & {2} & {3} & {4} & {5} & {6 \text { or more }} & {\text { Total }} \\ \hline \text { Number of Editorials } & {20} & {30} & {56} & {38} & {34} & {16} & {6} & {200} \\ \hline\end{array}
$$
$P(5 \text { or more responses })$

Tony W.
Numerade Educator

Problem 4

The table shows the frequency of responses to editorials. Find each probability.
$$
\begin{array}{|l|l|l|l|l|l|l|}\hline \text { Number of Responses } & {0} & {1} & {2} & {3} & {4} & {5} & {6 \text { or more }} & {\text { Total }} \\ \hline \text { Number of Editorials } & {20} & {30} & {56} & {38} & {34} & {16} & {6} & {200} \\ \hline\end{array}
$$
$P(\text { at most } 4 \text { responses })$

Martha R.
Numerade Educator

Problem 5

The table shows the frequency of responses to editorials. Find each probability.
$$
\begin{array}{|l|l|l|l|l|l|l|}\hline \text { Number of Responses } & {0} & {1} & {2} & {3} & {4} & {5} & {6 \text { or more }} & {\text { Total }} \\ \hline \text { Number of Editorials } & {20} & {30} & {56} & {38} & {34} & {16} & {6} & {200} \\ \hline\end{array}
$$
$P(0-2 \text { responses })$

Tony W.
Numerade Educator

Problem 6

Use a table and a graph to show the probability distribution for the spinner {red, green, blue, yellow $}.

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Problem 7

Use a table and a graph to show the probability distribution for the number of days $\{28,29,30,31\}$ in each of 48 consecutive months.

Tony W.
Numerade Educator

Problem 8

Suppose you roll two number cubes. Graph the probability distribution for each sample space.
{sum of numbers even, sum of numbers odd}

Martha R.
Numerade Educator

Problem 9

Suppose you roll two number cubes. Graph the probability distribution for each sample space.
{both numbers even, both numbers odd, one number even and the other odd}

Tony W.
Numerade Educator

Problem 10

Suppose you roll two number cubes. Graph the probability distribution for each sample space.
Design and conduct a simulation to determine the ages of 20 licensed drivers chosen at random in the United States.

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Problem 11

Design and conduct a simulation to determine the size and type of 30 cars purchased from U.S. car dealerships.

Tony W.
Numerade Educator

Problem 12

Graph the probability distribution described by each function.
$$
P(x)=\frac{x}{10} \text { for } x=1,2,3, \text { and } 4
$$

Martha R.
Numerade Educator

Problem 13

Graph the probability distribution described by each function.
$$
P(x)=\frac{2 x+1}{15} \text { for } x=1,2, \text { and } 3
$$

Tony W.
Numerade Educator

Problem 14

Weather. Refer to the table at the left.
a. Make a table showing the probability distribution for weather in Dayton.
b. Define the independent and dependent variables.
c. Find the probability that a day in Dayton will include rain or snow.

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Problem 15

Data Collection. Find weather data for a city near you. Draw a graph to show the probability distribution of weather conditions.

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Problem 16

a. Transportation Sometimes a probability distribution is shown as a circle graph. Define the independent and dependent variables in the distribution at the right.
b. Draw the distribution as a bar graph.
c. Find $P(\text { the tank is at least half full }$ when a driver buys gas).

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Problem 17

Writing. In a simulation, how do equally likely outcomes help you represent the probability distribution?

Tony W.
Numerade Educator

Problem 18

Odds The odds in favor of an event equal the ratio of the number of times the event occurs to the number of times the event does not occur. The odds in favor of event $A$ are $1 : 4 .$ The odds in favor of event $B$ are $2 : 3 .$ The odds in favor of event C are $1 : 3 .$ The odds in favor of event $\mathrm{D}$ are $3 : 17 .$ Graph the probability distribution of events $\mathrm{A}, \mathrm{B}, \mathrm{C},$ and $\mathrm{D}$ .

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Problem 19

Safety The table shows data for 911 calls in a town.
a. Conduct a simulation for the number of 911 calls over a 24 hour period.
b. If there are two response teams available, and each response takes about an hour, how many callers in your simulation have to wait?
c. Find $P(\text { caller will have to wait). }$
d. Critical Thinking Use your simulation to determine whether additional response teams are needed for this town. Explain your reasoning.

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Problem 20

Marketing A company includes instant-win tickets with $10,000,000$ of its products. Of the prizes offered, one is a large cash prize, $1,600,000$ are small cash prizes, and the other prizes are free samples of the company's products.
a. Find the theoretical probability of winning each type of prize.
b. Design and conduct a simulation to determine the prizes for 100 products.
c. Find the experimental probability for winning each type of prize.

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Problem 21

The table shows the number of cities in a region of the U.S. that are served by the given number of airlines. Use the table for Exercises $21-22$ .
What is the probability that a city chosen at random is served by exactly 4 airlines?
$$
\begin{array}{llll}{\text { A. } \frac{1}{18}} & {\text { B. } \frac{4}{21}} & {\text { C. } \frac{2}{11}} & {\text { D. } \frac{2}{9}}\end{array}
$$

Tony W.
Numerade Educator

Problem 22

The table shows the number of cities in a region of the U.S. that are served by the given number of airlines. Use the table for Exercises $21-22$ .
What is the probability that a city chosen at random is served by at least 1 airline?
$$
\begin{array}{llll}{\text { F. } 0} & {\text { G. } \frac{1}{99}} & {\text { H. } \frac{3}{11}} & {\text { J. } 1}\end{array}
$$

Martha R.
Numerade Educator

Problem 23

A spinner has 4 sections labeled $A, B, C,$ and $D .$ Can the spinner be designed so $P(A)=\frac{1}{12}, P(B)=\frac{1}{6}, P(C)=\frac{1}{3},$ and $P(D)=\frac{5}{12} ?$ If so, explain how.

Tony W.
Numerade Educator

Problem 24

Find the area under each curve for the domain $0 \leq x \leq 1$
$$
y=3
$$

Martha R.
Numerade Educator

Problem 25

Find the area under each curve for the domain $0 \leq x \leq 1$
$$
y=4 x+2
$$

Tony W.
Numerade Educator

Problem 26

Find the area under each curve for the domain $0 \leq x \leq 1$
$$
y=4 x^{3}+1
$$

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Problem 27

Sketch the graph of each equation.
$$
x^{2}-4 y^{2}+2 x+24 y=51
$$

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Problem 28

Sketch the graph of each equation.
$$
20 y^{2}-40 y-x=-25
$$

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Problem 29

Classify each pair of events as dependent or independent.
Choose one item from a buffet. Then choose a different item from the buffet.

Tony W.
Numerade Educator

Problem 30

Classify each pair of events as dependent or independent.
Choose a size for your drink. Then select a flavor.

Martha R.
Numerade Educator