What happens to a suspension when it is allowed to stand over a period of time?

Jason B.

Numerade Educator

If sugar is dissolved in water, which component is the solute, and which component is the solvent?

Jason B.

Numerade Educator

Of the following three substances, which two are miscible with one another: oil, water, and ethanol?

Jason B.

Numerade Educator

One solution is made by dissolving sucrose in water. Another solution is made by dissolving NaCl in water. Which of these dissolving processes involves dissociation?

Jason B.

Numerade Educator

What mass of ammonium chloride can be added to 100 g of water at $20^{\circ} \mathrm{C}$ before the solution becomes saturated? (See Figure $12 . )$

Jason B.

Numerade Educator

If 20 $\mathrm{g} \mathrm{KCl}$ is dissolved in 100 $\mathrm{g}$ of water at $20^{\circ} \mathrm{C},$ is the solution unsaturated, saturated, or supersaturated? (See Figure 12.)

Jason B.

Numerade Educator

Write a paragraph explaining what happens to an ionic salt in the following steps: it is dissolved in water, more of it than its solubility amount is added to the solution, the solution is heated, the solution is cooled to room temperature, and the solution is disturbed by adding more solute.

Jason B.

Numerade Educator

What kind of mixture is soap able to form in order to make oil and water soluble?

Jason B.

Numerade Educator

What are the two components of a solution, and how do they relate to each other?

Jason B.

Numerade Educator

Explain how distillation can be used to

obtain drinking water from sea water.

Jason B.

Numerade Educator

Explain how paper chromatography separates the components in a solution.

David C.

Numerade Educator

List these mixtures in order of increasing particle size: muddy water, sugar water, sand in water, and milk.

Jason B.

Numerade Educator

A few drops of milk are added to a glass of water, producing a cloudy mixture. The water is still cloudy after standing in the refrigerator for a week. What is this mixture called?

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Name a unit of concentration commonly used to express small concentrations.

David C.

Numerade Educator

State the following expression in words: $\left[\mathrm{K}_{3} \mathrm{PO}_{4}\right]$

Jason B.

Numerade Educator

A solution of $\mathrm{NaCl}$ is 1 $\mathrm{M.}$ Why is the concentration of particles 2 $\mathrm{M} ?$

David C.

Numerade Educator

Describe how you would prepare 250.0 $\mathrm{mL}$ of a. 0.500 $\mathrm{M}$ solution of $\mathrm{NaCl}$ by using apparatus found in a chemistry lab.

David C.

Numerade Educator

Why do small solid crystals dissolve in liquid more quickly than large crystals?

David C.

Numerade Educator

Would the compound BaSO $_{4}$ be considered soluble in water?

David C.

Numerade Educator

Would the compound $\mathrm{K}_{2} \mathrm{O}$ be considered soluble in water?

David C.

Numerade Educator

A solution of salt in water conducts electricity, but a solution of sugar does not. Explain why.

David C.

Numerade Educator

A 1 $\mathrm{M}$ solution of $\mathrm{NaCl}$ in water has a freezing point that is $3.7^{\circ} \mathrm{C}$ lower than pure water. Estimate what the freezing point would be for a 1 $\mathrm{M}$ solution of $\mathrm{CaCl}_{2}$ .

David C.

Numerade Educator

Explain why soap is a surfactant, a detergent, and an emulsifying agent.

David C.

Numerade Educator

Explain why acetic acid is considered a weak electrolyte and why HCl is considered a strong electrolyte.

David C.

Numerade Educator

A saturated solution of $\mathrm{PbCO}_{3}$ contains 0.00011 $\mathrm{g} \mathrm{PbCO}_{3}$ in 100 $\mathrm{g}$ of water. What is this concentration in parts per million?

David C.

Numerade Educator

Community water supplies usually contain 1.0 ppm of sodium fluoride. A particular water supply contains 0.0016 $\mathrm{g}$ of NaF in 1.60 $\mathrm{L}$ of water. Does it have enough NaF?

David C.

Numerade Educator

Most community water supplies have 0.5 ppm of chlorine added for purification What mass of chlorine must be added to 100.0 L of water to achieve this level?

David C.

Numerade Educator

A 12.5 kg sample of shark meat contained 22 mg of methyl mercury, $\mathrm{CH}_{3} \mathrm{Hg}^{+} .$ Is this amount within the legal limit of 1.00 ppm of

methyl mercury in meat?

David C.

Numerade Educator

If 15.55 g $\mathrm{NaOH}$ are dissolved in enough water to make a 500.0 $\mathrm{mL}$ solution, what is the molarity of the solution?

David C.

Numerade Educator

A solution contains 32.7 $\mathrm{g} \mathrm{H}_{3} \mathrm{PO}_{4}$ in 455 $\mathrm{mL}$ of solution. Calculate its molarity.

David C.

Numerade Educator

How many moles of $\mathrm{AgNO}_{3}$ are needed to prepare 0.50 $\mathrm{L}$ of a 4.0 $\mathrm{M}$ solution?

David C.

Numerade Educator

What is the molarity of a solution that contains 20.0 g $\mathrm{NaOH}$ in 2.00 $\mathrm{L}$ of solution?

David C.

Numerade Educator

Calculate the molarity of a $\mathrm{H}_{3} \mathrm{PO}_{4}$ solution of 6.66 $\mathrm{g}$ in 555 $\mathrm{mL}$ of solution.

David C.

Numerade Educator

Calculate the mass of $\mathrm{NaOH}$ in 65.0 $\mathrm{mL}$ of 2.25 $\mathrm{M}$ solution.

David C.

Numerade Educator

What mass of $\mathrm{HCl}$ is contained in 645 $\mathrm{mL}$ of 0.266 $\mathrm{M}$ solution?

David C.

Numerade Educator

What is the molarity of a hydrochloric acid solution that contains 18.3 $\mathrm{g} \mathrm{HCl}$ in 100.0 $\mathrm{mL}$ of solution?

David C.

Numerade Educator

A saturated solution of $\mathrm{NaCl}$ contains 36 $\mathrm{g}$ $\mathrm{NaCl}$ in 114 $\mathrm{mL}$ of solution. What is the molarity of the solution?

David C.

Numerade Educator

Calculate the mass of LiF in 100.0 $\mathrm{mL}$ of

0.100 $\mathrm{M}$ solution.

David C.

Numerade Educator

How many grams of glucose, $\mathrm{C}_{6} \mathrm{H}_{12} \mathrm{O}_{6},$ are in 255 $\mathrm{mL}$ of a 3.55 $\mathrm{M}$ solution?

David C.

Numerade Educator

You mix 1.00 $\mathrm{L}$ of 2.00 $\mathrm{M} \mathrm{BaCl}_{2}$ with 1.00 $\mathrm{L}$ of 2.00 $\mathrm{M} \mathrm{AgNO}_{3} .$ What compounds

remain in solution, and what are their concentrations? $$\begin{array}{c}{\mathrm{BaCl}_{2}(a q)+2 \mathrm{AgNO}_{3}(a q) \longrightarrow} \\ {2 \mathrm{AgCl}(s)+\mathrm{Ba}\left(\mathrm{NO}_{3}\right)_{2}(a q)}\end{array}$$

David C.

Numerade Educator

How many milliliters of 18.0 $\mathrm{M} \mathrm{H}_{2} \mathrm{SO}_{4}$ are required to react with 250 $\mathrm{mL}$ of 2.50 $\mathrm{M}$

$\mathrm{Al}(\mathrm{OH})_{3}$ if the products are aluminum sulfate and water?

David C.

Numerade Educator

If 75.0 $\mathrm{mL}$ of an AgNO $_{3}$ solution reacts with enough Cu to produce 0.250 $\mathrm{g}$ Ag by single displacement, what is the molarity of the

initial AgNO $_{3}$ solution if $\mathrm{Cu}\left(\mathrm{NO}_{3}\right)_{2}$ is the other product?

David C.

Numerade Educator

How many milliliters of 1.0 $\mathrm{M} \mathrm{AgNO}_{3}$ are needed to provide 168.88 $\mathrm{g}$ of pure $\mathrm{AgNO}_{3} ?$

David C.

Numerade Educator

What is the mass of potassium chromate, $\mathrm{K}_{2} \mathrm{CrO}_{4},$ in 20.0 $\mathrm{mL}$ of 6.0 M solution?

David C.

Numerade Educator

Sodium ions in blood serum normally are 0.145 $\mathrm{M} .$ How many grams of sodium ions are in 10.0 $\mathrm{mL}$ of serum?

David C.

Numerade Educator

A package of compounds used to achieve rehydration in sick patients contains 20.0 g of glucose, $\mathrm{C}_{6} \mathrm{H}_{12} \mathrm{O}_{6}$ . When this material is diluted to $1.00 \mathrm{L},$ what is the molarity of glucose?

David C.

Numerade Educator

Calcium phosphate, $\mathrm{Ca}_{3}\left(\mathrm{PO}_{4}\right)_{2},$ is quite cheap and causes few pollution problems. Why is it not used to de-ice sidewalks? (Hint: See Table 2 in Section 3.)

David C.

Numerade Educator

A calculation shows that a salt will have a negative $\Delta H$ and a positive $\Delta S$ when it dissolves. Is it actually soluble?

David C.

Numerade Educator

Imagine you are a sailor who must wash in sea water. Which is better to use, soap or synthetic detergent? Why?

David C.

Numerade Educator

Air pressure in an airplane cabin while in flight is significantly lower than at sea level. Explain in terms of Henry's law how this affects the speed at which a carbonated beverage, after opening, loses its fizz.

David C.

Numerade Educator

Why would a substance that contains only ionic bonds not work as an emulsifying agent?

David C.

Numerade Educator

Design a solubility experiment that would identify an unknown substance that is either CsCl, RbCl, LiCl, NH $_{4}$ , KCl, or NaCl. (Hint: You will need a solubility versus temperature graph for each of the salts.) If your instructor approves your design, get a sample from the instructor, and perform your experiment.

David C.

Numerade Educator

Many reagent chemicals used in the lab are sold in the form of concentrated aqueous solutions, as shown in the table below. Different volumes are diluted to 1.00 $\mathrm{L}$ to make less-concentrated solutions. Create a computer spreadsheet that will calculate the volume of concentrated reagent needed to make 1.00 L solutions of any molar concentration that you enter.

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Use the following terms to create a concept map: concentration, dissociates, electrical conductivity, solute, and solvent. Study the graph below, and answer the questions that follow. For help in interpreting graphs, see Appendix $B$ , "Study Skills for Chemistry."

David C.

Numerade Educator

Are most of the substances represented on the graph more or less soluble at higher temperatures?

David C.

Numerade Educator

Which salt is most soluble at $10^{\circ} \mathrm{C} ?$ at $60^{\circ} \mathrm{C} ?$ at $80^{\circ} \mathrm{C}$ ?

David C.

Numerade Educator

If you heat water to $80^{\circ} \mathrm{C},$ what amount of $\mathrm{NaCl}$ could you dissolve in it as compared to water that is at $20^{\circ} \mathrm{C} ?$

David C.

Numerade Educator

Which salt's solubility is most strongly affected by changes in temperature?

David C.

Numerade Educator

Graphing Calculator Predicting Solubility from Tabular Data The graphing calculator can run a programthat graphs solubility data. Given solubility measurements for KCl, you will use the data to predict its solubility at various temperatures. Go to Appendix C. If you are using a TI-83 Plus, you can download the program and data sets and run the application as directed. Press the APPS key on your calculator, then choose the application CHEMAPPS. Press 3 then highlight ALL on the screen, press 1 , then highlight LOAD and press 2 to load the data into your calculator. Press the keys 2nd and then QUIT, and then run the program $\mathrm{SOLUBIL}$ . For $\mathrm{L}_{1}$ press 2nd and LIST and choose SOL21. If you are using another calculator, your teacher will provide you with keystrokes and data sets to use. $$\begin{array}{l}{\text { a. At what temperature would you expect }} \\ {\text { the solubility to be } 48.9 \text { g per } 100 \mathrm{g} \mathrm{H}_{2} \mathrm{O} \text { ? }} \\ {\text { b. At what temperature would you expect }} \\ {\text { the solubility to be } 35 \mathrm{g} \text { per } 100 \mathrm{g} \mathrm{H}_{2} \mathrm{O} \text { ? }} \\ {\text { c. What would you expect the solubility to }} \\ {\text { be at a temperature of } 100^{\circ} \mathrm{C} ?}\end{array}$$

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