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Campbell Biology

Lisa A. Urry

Chapter 19

Viruses

Educators

MR

Problem 1

\begin{equation}
\begin{array}{l}{\text { Which of the following characteristics, structures, }} \\ {\text { or processes is common to both bacteria and }} \\ {\text { viruses? }} \\ {\text { (A) metabolism }} \\ {\text { (B) ribosomes }} \\ {\text { (C) genetic material composed of nucleic acid }} \\ {\text { (D) cell division }}\end{array}
\end{equation}

MR
Michael R.
Numerade Educator

Problem 2

\begin{equation}
\begin{array}{l}{\text { Emerging viruses arise by }} \\ {\text { (A) mutation of existing viruses. }} \\ {\text { (B) the spread of existing viruses to new host species. }} \\ {\text { (C) the spread of existing viruses more widely within their host }} \\ {\text { species. }} \\ {\text { (D) all of the above. }}\end{array}
\end{equation}

MR
Michael R.
Numerade Educator

Problem 3

\begin{equation}
\begin{array}{l}{\text { To cause a human pandemic, the H5N1 avian flu virus would }} \\ {\text { have to }} \\ {\text { (A) spread to primates such as chimpanzees. }} \\ {\text { (B) develop into a virus with a different host range. }} \\ {\text { (C) become capable of human-to-human transmission. }} \\ {\text { (D) become much more pathogenic. }}\end{array}
\end{equation}

MR
Michael R.
Numerade Educator

Problem 4

A bacterium is infected with an experimentally constructed bacteriophage composed of the T2 phage protein coat and $\mathrm{T} 4$ phage DNA. The new phages produced would have
(A) T2 protein and T4 DNA. (C) T2 protein and T2 DNA.
(B) T4 protein and T2 DNA. (D) T4 protein and T4 DNA.

MR
Michael R.
Numerade Educator

Problem 5

\begin{equation}
\begin{array}{l}{\text { RNA viruses require their own supply of certain enzymes because }} \\ {\text { (A) host cells rapidly destroy the viruses. }} \\ {\text { (B) host cells lack enzymes that can replicate the viral genome. }} \\ {\text { (C) these enzymes translate viral mRNA into proteins. }} \\ {\text { (D) these enzymes penetrate host cell membranes. }}\end{array}
\end{equation}

MR
Michael R.
Numerade Educator

Problem 6

\begin{equation}
\begin{array}{l}{\text { DRAW IT Redraw Figure } 19.8 \text { to show the replicative cycle of }} \\ {\text { a virus with a single-stranded genome that can function as }} \\ {\text { mRNA (a class IV virus). }}\end{array}
\end{equation}

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Problem 7

\begin{equation}
\begin{array}{l}{\text { EVOLUTION CONNECTION The success of some viruses lies in }} \\ {\text { their ability to evolve rapidly within the host. Such viruses evade }} \\ {\text { the host's defenses by mutating and producing many altered }}\end{array}
\end{equation}\begin{equation}
\begin{array}{l}{\text { progeny viruses before the body can mount an attack. Thus, the }} \\ {\text { viruses present late in infection differ from those that initially }} \\ {\text { infected the body. Discuss this as an example of evolution in }} \\ {\text { microcosm. Which viral lineages tend to predominate? }}\end{array}
\end{equation}

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Problem 8

SCENTIFIC INQUIRY When bacteria infect an animal, the number of bacteria in the body increases in an exponential fashion (graph A). After infection by a virulent animal virus with a lytic replicative cycle, there is no evidence of infection for a while. Then the number of viruses rises suddenly and subsequently increases in a series of steps (graph B). Explain the difference in the curves.

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Problem 9

WRITE ABOUT A THEME: ORGANIZATION While viruses are considered by most scientists to be nonliving, they do show some characteristics of life, including the correlation of structure and function. In a short essay ( 100-150 words), discuss how the structure of a virus correlates with its function.

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Problem 10

SYNTHESIZE YOUR KNOWLEDGE
Oseltamivir (Tamiflu), an antiviral drug prescribed for influenza, inhibits the enzyme neuraminidase. Explain how this drug could prevent infection in someone exposed to the flu or could shorten the course of flu in an infected

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