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The U.S. Department of Energy provides fuel economy information for a variety of motor vehicles. A sample of 10 automobiles is shown in Table 1.6 (Fuel Economy website, February $22,2008 ) .$ Data show the size of the automobile (compact, midsize, or large), the number of cylinders in the engine, the city driving miles per gallon, the highway driving miles per gallon, and the recommended fuel (diesel, premium, or regular).
a. How many elements are in this data set?
b. How many variables are in this data set?
c. Which variables are categorical and which variables are quantitative?
d. What type of measurement scale is used for each of the variables?
Figure 1.11 provides a bar chart showing the amount of federal spending for the years 2004
to 2010 (Congressional Budget Office website, May $15,2011 ) .$
a. What is the variable of interest?
b. Are the data categorical or quantitative?
c. Are the data time series or cross-sectional?
d. Comment on the trend in federal spending over time.
The Bureau of Transportation Statistics Omnibus Household Survey is conducted annually
and serves as an information source for the U.S. Department of Transportation. In one part
of the survey the person being interviewed was asked to respond to the following statement:
"Drivers of motor vehicles should be allowed to talk on a hand-held cell phone while driving." Possible responses were strongly agree, somewhat agree, somewhat disagree, and strongly disagree. Forty-four respondents said that they strongly agree with this statement,130 said that they somewhat agree, 165 said they somewhat disagree, and 741 said they strongly disagree with this statement (Bureau of Transportation website, August 2010$)$ .
a. Do the responses for this statement provide categorical or quantitative data?
b. Would it make more sense to use averages or percentages as a summary of the
responses for this statement?
c. What percentage of respondents strongly agree with allowing drivers of motor vehicles to talk on a hand-held cell phone while driving?
d. Do the results indicate general support for against allowing drivers of motor vehicles to talk on a hand-held cell phone while driving?
J.D. Power and Associates conducts vehicle quality surveys to provide automobile manufacturers with consumer satisfaction information about their products (Vehicle Quality Survey, January 2010 ). Using a sample of vehicle owners from recent vehicle purchase records, the survey asks the owners a variety of questions about their new vehicles, such as those shown below. For each question, state whether the data collected are categorical or quantitative and indicate the measurement scale being used.
a. What price did you pay for the vehicle?
b. How did you pay for the vehicle? (Cash, Lease, or Finance)
c. How likely would you be to recommend this vehicle to a friend? (Definitely Not, Probably Not, Probably Will, and Definitely Will)
d. What is the current mileage?
e. What is your overall rating of your new vehicle? A 110 -point scale, ranging from I for
unacceptable to 10 for truly exceptional, was used.
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Picturing Variations With Graphs
Linear Regression and Correlation
Normal, Binomial, and Geometric Models