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Which of the following best demonstrates the unity among all
(A) emergent properties
(B) descent with modification
(C) the structure and function of DNA
(D) natural selection
Which sentence best describes the logic of scientific inquiry?
(A) If I generate a testable hypothesis, tests and observations will support it.
(B) If my prediction is correct, it will lead to a testable hypothesis.
(C) If my observations are accurate, they will support my hypothesis.
(D) If my hypothesis is correct, I can expect certain test results.
Systems biology is mainly an attempt to
(A) analyze genomes from different species.
(B) simplify complex problems by reducing the system into smaller, less complex units.
(C) understand the behavior of entire biological systems by studying interactions among its component parts.
(D) build high-throughput machines for the rapid acquisition of biological data.
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In this video, we will discuss the Human Genome Project. So the Human Genome Project began in 1990 with the goal of sequencing each nucleotide of the human genome. So, uh, this was a very highly publicized event because this was the first time that they were going to apply, uh, DNA sequencing and this genome sequencing to humans and the government funded three Human Genome project. And then there was also this private project that kind of raced alongside the government, and this was completed in 2003. Now, what is most important is the way that they pioneered this kind of, uh, mechanism and procedure in order to sequence the full human genome. And this was unprecedented, but they were able to do it, so there were actually three stages in order to sequence the genome. The first stage was linkage mapping. So the three stages and then we're going to start off with the first, which is linkage mapping and basically in linkage mapping. There was an ordering of genetic markers in order to determine the different polymorphisms that were present. So there were approximately 200 polymorphisms per chromosome, and these markers were ordered to correspond to each and every one of these polymorphisms. Eso Basically we would. They would construct this linkage map where we would have several 1000 genetic markers space throughout the chromosomes. So these markers served as framework in order to create more detailed maps of particulate er regions and so moving from these markers and from this linkage mapping, the scientists were able to go on to Stage two, which was physical mapping and with physical mapping. The scientists would order these large, overlapping fragments that were cloned in vectors and they were ordered in theory order of smaller fragments that were cloned so basically did order the 1st. 1st they ordered the large fragments in vectors and then they would order the smaller fragments in of pages and plasmid vectors. So the physical map contained the distances between markers and basically put a physical measurement on that and would allow for the number would allow the sciences too. Understand the distances in terms of the number of nucleotides between the markers. So the distances between markers were measured using base pairs as the unit, and the way that this was done was via using these fragments and then the probes that were applied to these fragments would sequence them, and the overlapping ends were found. And basically, once those overlapping fragments were found, the fragments could be assigned a sequential order that would correspond to the order in the chromosome. And that's how they would find the actual distance in terms of nucleotides and nitrogenous bases between those individual fragments. Then, finally, that third stage. The most crucial stage was the actual DNA sequencing. And this DNA sequencing stage involved the determination of the nucleotide sequence off each of those small fragments that were part of that physical map in Step two in order to complete the whole genome sequence so it would involve the determination off the nucleotide sequence of each small fragment. And then all of these nucleotide sequences were string together in order to produce the whole genome sequence. So this just gives us an appreciation for the complexity of the project that was undertaken, and it shows that thes scientists were able to, for the very first time sequence the entirety of the human genome, and this opened up the door for a lot of other research and discoveries that could be made because with this genome sequenced, now we can look into certain regions of the chromosomes. We can pinpoint exactly where certain genetic diseases are going to be located, and this helps tailor our treatment and approaches to helping to alleviate the symptoms and helping these patients that are going to come in with these genetic disorders. We can help pinpoint that using our human genome sequence, and thus with the sequence, we can figure out what specifically, if there are any mutations or if there are going to be any Loh Kai that are going to play a role in causing these genetic diseases. And ah, lot of the diseases that we find are actually going to have some genetic component to them, although they may not seem like they're genetic outright, such as, uh, Down Syndrome or Tay Sachs disease. Of course, these air very blatant genetic diseases, but there are also other genetic diseases, such as after a sclerosis and heart disease. Andi, if we look at heart disease as a model, we find that they're going to be tons of different genetic markers for heart disease, and we can actually use our genome, all the healthy individual and we can compare that to the genome of the patient that is going to have atherosclerosis, and we confined where those differences will occur. And we can help target perhaps gene therapies or maybe not even gene therapies. But we can help target specific proteins that those genes encode for in order to make better on duh, more efficient and kind of custom tailored medications in order to help those individuals. So the Human Genome Project did an enormous work and made great strides in the spheres of biology, medicine and technology.