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University of Wisconsin - Madison
Which sentence best describes the logic of scientific inquiry?
(A) If I generate a testable hypothesis, tests and observations will support it.
(B) If my prediction is correct, it will lead to a testable hypothesis.
(C) If my observations are accurate, they will support my hypothesis.
(D) If my hypothesis is correct, I can expect certain test results.
Evoution connection A typical prokaryotic cell has about
$3,000$ genes in its DNA, while a human cell has almost $21,000$
genes. About $1,000$ of these genes are present in both types of
cells. Based on your understanding of evolution, explain how such different organisms could have this same subset of $1,000$ genes. What sorts of functions might these shared genes have?
A controlled experiment is one that
(A) proceeds slowly enough that a scientist can make careful records of the results.
(B) tests experimental and control groups in parallel.
(C) is repeated many times to make sure the results are accurate.
(D) keeps all variables constant.
Which of the following best demonstrates the unity among all
(A) emergent properties
(B) descent with modification
(C) the structure and function of DNA
(D) natural selection
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In this video, we will discuss biotechnology in the real world, including the spheres of forensics, medical advances and the environment. So let's start off with the medical applications of biotechnology, and the first will be in the diagnosis of disease. So as we discussed earlier, there are what are known as snips. Were single nucleotide polymorphisms, which are going to be basically these small point mutations in non coding regions of DNA that can be used to form correlations between patients that will exhibit a particular condition and a, um, test patient that we're trying to figure out if they are going to be susceptible to this disease or not. So these snips or single nucleotide polymorphisms are going to be extremely important in kind of forming these correlations, so they will allow for predictions to be made regarding patients susceptibility to a given disease. And there are also going to be these restriction fragment length polymorphisms that are also going to be very helpful in making diagnoses. And then there's also the idea of gene therapy. So gene therapy involves trying to introduce genes into an afflicted individual in order to provide them with some sort of treatment or relief from their condition. So we will introduce genes into the patient as a therapeutic option. So hopefully these new genes will be taken in by the cells. And then we will be able to form new cells with this new genetic information that will be able to produce the uh required genes in protein form. So they're going to translate the new gene message that they're given so unexamined of. This would be if we are trying to use a gene therapy in order to combat severe combined immunodeficiency or skit. And what we could do is we could inject thes retroviruses with re competent RNA and basically inject those into the bone marrow off our patient's cells and try to get those bone marrow cells to produce new white blood cells that will contain the edited gene and then produce the, uh, corresponding proteins as well. So that would be gene therapy. So those are the medical applications of biotechnology. And of course, there's more. There's also the pharmaceutical, uh, company side where we are able to make these transgenic organisms that will contain certain genes from, let's say, humans, although there go to themselves. So the goats will be given this human jean in order so that they can produce the protein in their milk. And then we could extract the required proteins from that milk after they produce it. But there are just a ton of different uses for biotechnology within the medical sphere. And then in terms of forensics, we have what are known as short tandem repeats, and these short tandem repeats are basically going to be genetic markers of variable length. And if we are to look at some DNA, let's say that it's left behind on a piece of clothing. Or let's say it's going to be a piece of hair and we're trying to figure out well, who is the perpetrator? Well, we would simply take the DNA and look for just localize all of these short tandem repeats or STRS, and then we can run them out on a gel performed gel electrophoresis and see what kind of banding pattern would appear. So if we are to produce uh, given banding pattern, we are able to then get the DNA from some of our suspects and then narrow down. What suspect did it because of the lining up for the matching of these short tandem repeat bands off that gel. So basically, we have our If we are to draw this out, we're going to have our gel right here. And then we'll have, uh, the sample, and then we'll have suspect 123 and four aan den eso. Our sample will have bands here, here and here. Suspect one will have banned here and here. Suspect two will have a banned here banned here and a band here. Suspect three will have these bands and suspect for will just have that one band. So what suspect did it? Well, it would be suspect three, because there STRS are going to line up with those found on the sample. And as you can see, the banding pattern is going to be the same. So that is why you would say that this is going to be the guilty suspect because their DNA or those short tandem repeat, they're going to match up. And if you are to do the calculation, uh, it is something like a one in a trillion chance or so that there is going to be, uh, two individuals with the same kind of short tandem repeats. So this is going to be a very definitive kind of procedure that will basically prove whether or not the DNA that we have is going to match up with that off the suspect. And then if we are looking for an environmental application, there is the classic application of biotechnology in this field of biofuels. So with these bio fuels, basically, scientists were looking for alternative fuel sources and the use of genetic engineering to produce bio ethanol, which could be used to fuel cars or to fuel any kind of motor. So basically, scientists were looking for a new attempt, or they were looking to use plans instead of natural gas and the ah carbon deposits of the oil within the ocean bed. They were instead looking for these alternative applications, an alternative kind of sources for fuel, and thus they would genetically engineered plants to produce bioethanol, which would just be the starch that is made in the plants that could be converted to sugar and then fermented by microorganisms. On. This would help to alleviate the strain on all of the carbon emissions that we would have. So this bio fuel was another example of how biotechnology has an effect on all of these different spheres of life. So, as you can see, we find biotechnology and quite ah lot of different aspects of everyday life, and thus it just shows you how important biotechnology is and how all of these seemingly complex or distant ideas of short tandem repeats of gel electrophoresis off the, uh, DNA of chromosomes of genetics of all of these different things. How you might think, Well, there's really no application for me as an engineer. Well, in the end, there is always going to be some sort of application, even if you might not see it right away. There are always going to be different perspectives that we could see, and we would find biotechnology involved in a whole lot of different spheres.