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Bridgewater State University
Florida State University
All the organisms on your campus make up
(A) an ecosystem.
(B) a community.
(C) a population.
(D) a taxonomic domain.
Evoution connection A typical prokaryotic cell has about
$3,000$ genes in its DNA, while a human cell has almost $21,000$
genes. About $1,000$ of these genes are present in both types of
cells. Based on your understanding of evolution, explain how such different organisms could have this same subset of $1,000$ genes. What sorts of functions might these shared genes have?
Which sentence best describes the logic of scientific inquiry?
(A) If I generate a testable hypothesis, tests and observations will support it.
(B) If my prediction is correct, it will lead to a testable hypothesis.
(C) If my observations are accurate, they will support my hypothesis.
(D) If my hypothesis is correct, I can expect certain test results.
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In this video, we will discuss comparative genomics and rewriting the tree of life. So originally, scientists would use physical evidence to determine the interactions, specifically evolutionary interactions between different species between different types of animals between different kinds of bacteria. We would look for fossil records. We would look for perhaps the bones that are going to be left over, perhaps the organic material left over by plants to determine how they are going to be related. But now, with our scientific breakthroughs and increased developments, we are able to have a much deeper understanding of relationships not solely on the basis of structure and outward characteristics, but on these um, fundamental genetic characteristics that will tie together different animals. Plants, bacteria tie together different organisms. So the tree of life that we have originally will be edited as we go along, and we compare the genomes of different ah species and different organisms. So genomics refers to the study of whole sets of jeans and there interactions. So if we are going to study the genomes of all of these different organisms, we can start to find places in those genomes where potential divergences occurred and we can try to look for potential areas that will coincide with one another. And we have done this with humans and chimpanzees. And we have also done this with Brewer's yeast and nematodes and fruit flies and house mice Onda rhesus monkeys. So there has been a lot of sequencing that has been completed in terms of the genomes of all of these different organisms. And as we gather data as more sequencing is going to be performed as we understand how understand what comprises all of these different genomes, understanding how those nucleotides will all arrange themselves. As we gain all of this information, we are able to piece together what organism is going to be most closely related to another organism, and with computer software and artificial intelligence, this job becomes much easier. But it also becomes much more complex because now we start comparing with a lot of different factors, and we start to get better data. But this will also be more complex data. So there are two sides to that coin. But in general we see that with these new approaches to things tree of life and when we can actually use the genome in order to help us out. Instead of just fossil records, we are able to construct better comparisons across all of these different organisms, so comparative genomics would entail the following. So comparative genomics will use the genomes of various organisms in order to determine their evolutionary relationships. So we are thus able to, ah, use, of course, artificial intelligence and our laboratory skills, and we are able to actually automate the process of decoding the genomes of all these different organisms. And then it is up to the scientists to use the information that they get in pieces together in some way that is going to be logical, and that will connect all of these different organisms through a new kind of tree of life. So the tree of life is getting rewritten at the moment, and it will continue to get rewritten as we gather new data on all of these different genomes. So as we are able to compare the genomes of all of these different organisms as more genomes are sequenced, the better the data gets, the more statistically significant to get and the better. Our predictions are in our hypotheses as to what organisms are going to be most closely related