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Evoution connection A typical prokaryotic cell has about
$3,000$ genes in its DNA, while a human cell has almost $21,000$
genes. About $1,000$ of these genes are present in both types of
cells. Based on your understanding of evolution, explain how such different organisms could have this same subset of $1,000$ genes. What sorts of functions might these shared genes have?
Which sentence best describes the logic of scientific inquiry?
(A) If I generate a testable hypothesis, tests and observations will support it.
(B) If my prediction is correct, it will lead to a testable hypothesis.
(C) If my observations are accurate, they will support my hypothesis.
(D) If my hypothesis is correct, I can expect certain test results.
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In this video, we will cover transpose herbal elements and other multi gene families. So a transpose herbal element will be a type of sequence of DNA that is able to move around within the genome. And it's quite unusual because usually we think of Lok I on chromosomes that will have the specific genetic sequence there. But it turns out that these transpose herbal elements really do move around within chromosomes and even beyond chromosomes among the whole genome. So a transpose herbal element will be this genetic element or sequence of DNA that can move or relocate from one location in the genome to another. And what this allows for is a lot of genetic variation, because depending on the organism that we have the individual that we have, we will find that the transpose ons will be in different locations. And this means that we will find greater genetic variation. And with these transpose herbal elements, we also have transposed on, and transpose ons are going to be the first type of transportable element found in new carriers, and they're going to be actually two types transpose ons and retro transpose on. But we'll start off with the transpose ons. The transpose on will be a transportable element in eukaryotes, and it moves within the genome via a DNA intermediate. Basically, they are able to cut and paste themselves from one location to another mhm. Now it is important to note that they can also do a copy and paste, where they will leave a copy of the transpose on or that sequence behind. So this is very interesting to note. There's both the cotton paste mechanism where they're just going to move from one location to another. But there's also the copy and paste where they will make a copy of themselves. Leave one copy at that original location, and then the other copy goes to the new location. Now, this will be different from retro transpose on which you're going to be. The second transpose herbal element in eukaryotes and retro transpose ons will be thes genetic sequences that move within the genome via RNA intermediates. So instead of having a DNA intermediate that is going to be found within our transpose on, these will have an RNA intermediate that will be found in the retro transpose ons so they actually have to transcribe themselves backwards. And that means that they have to undergo reverse transcription converting from Arna back to DNA because, as we know, the forward processes just transcription DNA Arna. But here we have to undergo the reverse of this from D Arna to DNA, and thus they are able to take this DNA and put it in, Insert it in a different location within the genome. So these were going to be our two different kinds of transpose herbal elements within eukaryotes. Now it's important to note that there are other kinds of multi gene families, and when we say multi gene family we are referring to, So we have multi gene family. We are referring to collections of to or more identical or very similar genes. So an example of this would be in the either the Rivasseau Mo gene family, specifically the rival so more RNA or RNA gene family and also the globe in gene family. And it's important to note that these multi gene families are going to be located on different from his owns, so there will be dispersed throughout the genome. However, they will encode for very similar genes. So this is how we find that they're going to be these multi gene families that will govern, uh, certain protein synthesis, although on different chromosomes, they will govern this synthesis off these big protein complexes such as the globe in protein, which consists of different domains and also has this heem group at the center, or the ribosomes RNA, which is going to be a RNA protein complex that contains both RNA and protein in order to carry out translation. So, as you can see, we are going to have, uh, modifications to the initial men DeLeon, Genetics and Men DeLeon Mechanism of inheritance As we, uh, make new discoveries, we find that there are multi gene families and there are also going to be these transportable elements that really don't align with the laws of segregation and independent assortment that were first proposed or um founded or discovered by Gregor Mendel