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Bridgewater State University
University of North Carolina at Wilmington
Evoution connection A typical prokaryotic cell has about
$3,000$ genes in its DNA, while a human cell has almost $21,000$
genes. About $1,000$ of these genes are present in both types of
cells. Based on your understanding of evolution, explain how such different organisms could have this same subset of $1,000$ genes. What sorts of functions might these shared genes have?
Which of the following best demonstrates the unity among all
(A) emergent properties
(B) descent with modification
(C) the structure and function of DNA
(D) natural selection
Which sentence best describes the logic of scientific inquiry?
(A) If I generate a testable hypothesis, tests and observations will support it.
(B) If my prediction is correct, it will lead to a testable hypothesis.
(C) If my observations are accurate, they will support my hypothesis.
(D) If my hypothesis is correct, I can expect certain test results.
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In this video, we will cover epi genetics and specifically at B genetic inheritance. So, as we know, the main way of passing on genetic information from one generation to the other is going to be via our nucleotide sequence of our DNA, and we replicate that DNA. And then we can split that DNA via chromosomes and my topic divisions to our new daughter cells, and thus they will be able to carry on on, uh, perform my toast this again and again. And as we go down the line as we go further generation to generation, we find that we will be able to pass on our genetic information. But this is going to be the classic way that we pass on genetic information. This is going to be the molecular basis of inheritance on. Then we can think about chromosomes as the chromosome, oh, basis of inheritance. And of course, there's the Mendel Ian inheritance patterns that we see with jeans and wheels and traits and dominant versus recessive traits. But there are also going to be other pathways and other mechanisms that will not involve DNA, not involve chromosomes and not really involve traits or Leal's at all. So this mechanism of inheritance will be referred to as epi, genetic inheritance or basically any mechanism that is not directly involved with nucleotide sequences. So it will be a mechanism of inheritance not directly involved with the nucleotide sequence of DNA. So what would be an example of this? Well, under epigenetic inheritance, we would find crow Mountain modification. And basically, this will come back to what we learned in the molecular inheritance a portion of the unit that there are going to be these modifications that could be made to our nucleotide sequence to our DNA and specifically to the Actually, there are going to be two types of modifications, one that could be made to the Hiss stones and the second of which can be made to the actual DNA sequence. So Crumpton modification will take two forms on. We'll talk about DNA methylation first and basically with DNA methylation, we're going to be adding this ch three so a method group and as we do that we are going to repress transcription where it will inhibit transcription. So as we add the ch three group, we will make it harder for that specific DNA sequence to be transcribed and then another chromatic modification that we have specifically involving the Histon proteins. And we can have his stone. The simulation, which increases transcription work, favors transcription. It makes the DNA sequence that is wrapped around that specific Histon mawr accessible for our replication fork to unwind it and unwind our double helix of DNA in order to be able to replicate it. So this will facilitate or increased transcription, whereas DNA methylation will repress transcription and put together these two mechanisms will allow for alternative kinds of inheritance via, um, Crow Martin modification for our progeny. So all of our offspring will be able to inherit the way that the DNA is going to be actually stored and how those crow Metin complexes will be modified. So chromatic modification is passed down. Um, we could say from generation two generations, so this would be epigenetic inheritance. And then there will also be the inheritance that is involved with response to environmental signals. And this would not necessarily relate to inheritance as we would, um, transfer our genetic information from one individual to its offspring. This would be mawr off the cells own changes in its genome while it is still alive in response to or the environmental stimuli. So things like different signals in the environment different temperatures in the environment. They can cause epigenetic changes that, although might not be inherited, they would still fall under the concept of epi genetics in that the, uh, stimuli from those environmental factors will cause changes in that cells protein, um, makeup. So that translation of DNA into protein will be somehow changed based on these environmental factors. So this is all going to be part of epi genetics and EPI. Genetics is going to be just another alternative mechanism by which we can either see differential gene expression or we could see differential mechanisms and differential pathways for inheritance to occur.
Genomics and Biotechnology