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Bridgewater State University
Florida State University
Evoution connection A typical prokaryotic cell has about
$3,000$ genes in its DNA, while a human cell has almost $21,000$
genes. About $1,000$ of these genes are present in both types of
cells. Based on your understanding of evolution, explain how such different organisms could have this same subset of $1,000$ genes. What sorts of functions might these shared genes have?
Which sentence best describes the logic of scientific inquiry?
(A) If I generate a testable hypothesis, tests and observations will support it.
(B) If my prediction is correct, it will lead to a testable hypothesis.
(C) If my observations are accurate, they will support my hypothesis.
(D) If my hypothesis is correct, I can expect certain test results.
Which of the following statements best distinguishes
hypotheses from theories in science?
(A) Theories are hypotheses that have been proved.
(B) Hypotheses are guesses; theories are correct answers.
(C) Hypotheses usually are relatively narrow in scope; theories have broad explanatory power.
(D) Theories are proved true; hypotheses are often contradicted by experimental results.
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in this video, we will cover some chromosomal changes that will lead to disease and how all of the knowledge that we have gained of Mandelli in inheritance and, uh, the genetic and chromosomal basis of inheritance will come into play in this medical case study. So of course, there are going to be issues, no matter how many checkpoints we have. No matter how Maney proof reading mechanisms are going to be in place, we're always going to have some sort of, um, circumstance that will surpass these mechanisms in place, and thus we will always have some sort of air that occurs now. It's just a matter of time before that error occurs and is going to be very rare. But we do see and they're going to be plenty of individuals who are going to have different errors associated with their chromosomes. So the first error that is going to be quite important in the medical field especially, will be This idea of non disjunction and non disjunction refers to the fact that during my oh sis, one homologous chromosomes may not separate. So why does this become a problem? Well, if we are to look at ourselves, and we see that in ourselves. We're going to have thes homologous chromosomes. And of course, these are going to be different chromosome numbers. But they're all going to be homologous in terms of each one is going to be part of the homologous chromosome set. So we see four chromosomes here and two of the chromosomes their sister chromosomes, meaning that they're just identical copies of one another. And then the different colors the orange and the red referred to the, uh, pair of homologous chromosomes. So during my ASUs, usually we would see that if this was a normal, myopic activity, we would see that this, um, set of chrome it'd of the homologous pair would migrate to this side. And this set of primitives from that homologous pair would migrate to this side. But what if this migration does not occur? What if instead, we have both, uh, all four of the chrome it'd of that homologous pair? What if they move to this side? Well, that means that if we look down the line after miles is one has occurred, we're going to have to cells, and one cell is going to have 12 34 Chromatis for chromosome number one, and then the rest will be as such. But then this one will have no chromosome number one, and then chromosomes two and three would be separated out normally. So why is this a problem? Well, now, if we were to undergo biotic divisions, we see that our employees is going to be incorrect for a certain chromosomes. So specifically, chromosome number one is going to have an incorrect employees. So this is how you would get certain situations and certain conditions that would cause different problems within humans and other animals such as Down Syndrome. So Down Syndrome is going to be caused by this polyp loyalty off a specific chromosome. And specifically, it's going to be chromosome number 21. And this would occur due to a non disjunction error. So an example of this would be down syndrome and it is important to note that Down syndrome is also going to be, um, referred to as try. So me 21 and this try saw me refers to the fact that they're going to be three chromosomes instead of two for chromosome number 21. So this would be a Polyp Lloyd, the situation where we're going to have more than the regular deployed number of chromosomes and with down syndrome. Usually we would find, um, it's manifestation in the individual as having heart defect susceptibility to respiratory infections, mental illnesses and mental challenges, difficulty learning. And, of course, there's going to be a spectrum to this. So it's not that it's a hard and definitive Well, this is exactly what's going to happen if you have Down syndrome. But there's going to be a range of these different presentations on perhaps even the facial character characteristics or facial features might be slightly different on then. There's going to be increased susceptibility to developing leukemia and Alzheimer's disease. So, uh, there is going to be quite a range of different symptoms and signs that can present with Down syndrome. But this is all going to be due to the fact that there was non disjunction event where our chromosomes and specifically the homologous chromosomes did not separate out properly. Now, another kind of error in chromosome structure or a change in chromosome structure that we might notice will be, uh, with or with regards to the actual chromosome itself. So instead of the number of chromosomes, we can actually find that they're going to be changes on alterations off the actual chromosome structure. So there are actually four different alterations that can occur and the first of which So, actually, we could just call this section the alteration of chromosome structure. So the first kind of alteration would be a delusion. And that means that a certain segment of our chromosome is deleted. And then we will have our second type, which is a duplication where a segment of a given chromosome is duplicated. These air pretty straightforward. Uh, they are exactly what the name implies that an inversion is going to be where we find that a segment of the chromosome will be inverted or reversed. And then finally, our fourth type of structural alteration of our chromosome will be a trans location event. And now the translocation is probably going to be the most complicated of all these four different alterations of chromosome structure. But basically, during translocation, we will move a segment of one chromosome to a non homologous chromosome. So that means that we're going to take, uh, chromosome. Let's say, in chromosome number one, we're going to take a portion from chromosome number one, and we will transfer that portion to chromosome number three. So it is not going to be a homologous chromosome that we transfer this to. Instead, it would be a non homologous chromosome. So would be basically a different number of our chromosomes. So completely different chromosome, and thus we will find that we have trans located or moved the genetic information stored on that chromosome on, uh, sometimes we're going to get a thing called reciprocal translocation, where we will actually transfer the information from one chromosome to the non homologous chromosome. But then that non homologous chromosome transfers. It's ah portion of this information back to the original chromosome that started the transfer, so it is kind of like a two way street in terms of reciprocal translocation. But in general, translocation refers to the movement of a segment of chromosome to a nun homologous chromosome. And of course, these transfers and alterations will potentially cause some changes in the way that our organism will develop. But it's important to note that perhaps if we do have something like a trans location, we are still going to maintain our jeans. They're just going to be found in two different locations, so perhaps that is not going to be as damaging. But if we do have a deletion of a crucial locus so of a crucial gene, then we might have some problems. Because if we were to delete a gene that encodes for very important proteins such as hemoglobin, how will we be able to transfer oxygen to all of ourselves so deletions can be quite deadly? But translocation is probably slightly less so. On The final thing that we should talk about is the fact that even though we discussed Down Syndrome as being a polyp Lloyd, where there's going to be multiples off our, uh, specific chromosome number, so in this case it's chromosome number 21. There are also cases where we will have Polly Ploy tee off sex chromosomes so we can actually refer to this as an employee, and an employee is going to basically be the idea of poly employees. But it can also go in the opposite direction. So this is just going to be and incorrect number of chromosomes and as any plenty refers to the sex chromosomes while we are usually going to see multiples of either the X chromosome or the Y chromosome, so they are going to be a couple of different conditions that will occur on. We'll discuss Klinefelter Syndrome and Turner Syndrome, so Klein Felter syndrome will be a disorder or a chromosomal disease, where we will have a male with an extra X chromosome. So the mail has the genotype of X X y, and what kind of manifestations will we see with this? Well, we will see, um, the presence of sex organs. So we will see the presence of testicles. However, they're going to be abnormally small, and usually the man would be sterile. Now if we were to look at females. We also see an employee, or changes in chromosome will number in females as well. And there could be a triple X or trisomy X, where we're going to have three X chromosomes. But we will focus also on Turner syndrome, which is going to be the case where the female is going to have the following genotype just a single X chromosome. So with this single Ekstrom zone or mono So me X, we could also refer to this as mono So me X Because there is going to be on Lee one or mono off this X chromosome, these females will be, um, they'll develop normally there's going to be a viable monos omi situation usually mono So me, um, in humans is going to be lethal, and usually the organism would not be viable, but our female would be viable in this case, however, most likely she would be infertile due to the fact that, um, the sex organs will not properly mature. So this is just giving us a better idea of how these chromosomal changes will affect our manifestations and development of humans. And thus we see that there are going to be some syndromes and disorders that will occur if the chromosomal structure is incorrect or if the actual number of chromosomes will also be incorrect.
Genomics and Biotechnology