💬 👋 We’re always here. Join our Discord to connect with other students 24/7, any time, night or day.Join Here!
No Related Subtopics
Bridgewater State University
University of Pennsylvania
Evoution connection A typical prokaryotic cell has about
$3,000$ genes in its DNA, while a human cell has almost $21,000$
genes. About $1,000$ of these genes are present in both types of
cells. Based on your understanding of evolution, explain how such different organisms could have this same subset of $1,000$ genes. What sorts of functions might these shared genes have?
Which of the following statements best distinguishes
hypotheses from theories in science?
(A) Theories are hypotheses that have been proved.
(B) Hypotheses are guesses; theories are correct answers.
(C) Hypotheses usually are relatively narrow in scope; theories have broad explanatory power.
(D) Theories are proved true; hypotheses are often contradicted by experimental results.
Create your own quiz or take a quiz that has been automatically generated based on what you have been learning. Expose yourself to new questions and test your abilities with different levels of difficulty.
Create your own quiz
this video will be an overview of genetics, starting from the time of Gregor Mendel, with his pea plant experiments moving all the way to modern genetics and how we're able to use genetics in order to help patients out by taking a look at their genome and tailoring our medical practice to that patient specific genome. So this all started out with Gregor Mendel and Gregor Mendel Waas, a monk, and he was able to study pea plants at his monastery and what he do every day, he just go out and tend to his pea plants, and he began to start messing around with genetics. So, of course, there was no idea of the gene at the time. There was no idea of chromosomes. There was no idea of DNA, but he was able to figure out that certain things that he, due to the plants, would produce certain results. And then these results would be reproducible. So the reproduce ability of Gregor Mendel's experiments laid the groundwork or the foundation for modern genetics, and what he would do is he would look at these different P plants and look at different aspects of the pea plants. You look at the flowers and the different piece that those plants would produce. You look at the height of those plants, and he would try to mix different plants together to see if he could produce a certain offspring with a 100% certainty. So he was able to discover that there would be certain combinations of plants that would always produce, for example, a yellow P or a pink flower. And he was able to do this over and over again and observe how these plants would grow for many generations, because you have to understand that these plants congrats every year. So we're able to see how these P plants over the years over decades can form these follow genetic trees. And basically we can make pedigree charts, which we will discuss in future videos that we can trace the actual genetics off our offspring all the way back to some sort of parental source. And that could be either one generation upstream or upstream 20 generations. It doesn't matter, and this is exactly what Gregor Mendel was able to dio. And of course, there was no explanation for how this occurs. All he knew is that he was dealing with these tangible results, and, uh, it was his job to kind of use the science at the time in order to piece together all the pictures of the puzzle. So as an overview, we know that the genome is going to be the collection of genetic material or information stored within an individual, and specific genes are going to be in our understanding in the modern understanding. They will be sequences of DNA, that code for a specific protein, but in the understanding off Gregor Mendel jeans. And he didn't even have an understanding of genes. But after him in his students work or those who would look to his work and try to figure it out, they saw it not as a code for specific proteins, but they would see it as a code for specific traits. And in future videos, we will distinguish between the phenotype and genotype to see how the actual genetic code is going to be different from what is going to be produced. And also we have to remember that all of this is going to occur due to the fact that we have sexual reproduction occurring. So he was able to basically mate or pollinate these peop lance crossing over different types of P plants in order to produce certain offspring. And sexual reproduction, as we know, is going to be the the fertilization of an egg cell with the sperm to produce a deployed zygote. And that zygote develops into the embryo in the embryo will eventually develop into our fully fledged organism. And of course, the egg and sperm are going to be happ would. So these air gametes there Happy Floyd, meaning that they're only gonna have one chromosome off the homologous pair. And as we discussed earlier, the homologous pair of chromosomes will be these chromosomes that will come from both the mother and the father or parent one and parent too. And basically, in those cases, we will have a deployed organism where every cell in that organism contains a pair of chromosomes for each chromosome number. So, for example, in humans we have 46 individual chromosomes, but there are only 23 different types of chromosomes. So that means that we have two sets of chromosomes for each chromosome number, and this makes us deployed. So we have to. That's where you get the dye and deployed, and Hap Lloyd would be gametes, which only have one set of chromosomes for each chromosome number. So putting this all into context of Gregor Mendel's work, we will be able to observe how Gina Types and FINA types will, um, cause different changes among our offspring and how we can take different parents and make them and use sexual reproduction. Which, of course, as we know, has a lot of genetic variation and use that variation to our advantage in order to study genetics.
Genomics and Biotechnology