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Explain how the sum of heat and work can be a state function, even though heat and work are themselves not state functions.
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If energy flows out of a chemical system and into the surroundings, what is the sign of Esystem?
What is the law of conservation of energy? How does it relate to energy exchanges between a thermodynamic system and its surroundings?
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Let's talk about the concept off equilibrium. So equipment is basically a mixture off reactors and products, which they do not change their concentrations over time. So let me show you what not an inquiry miss. For example, HCL plus water would give you Ace trio and C l ions. Now let's say you have one mole of this and you have one mole of water. What happens is the consume, all the reactions and in the products we have in the last state, we have nothing left, whereas in the products we see Vermijl off each issue on sale. But that's not the case in an aquarium. So, for example, let's take the reaction into four that is in a calibri, um, with two n 02 How this happens is, let's say we had one more off until four. And after some time, let's say 0.5 is used. And at the ec opium, we have 0.5 off until four. Whereas we had nothing at first and we produced vom all off this because for everyone Matloff, until four we get two and 02 and there could be we have one more off. No to. So after these molecules reach to these concentrations, nothing changes anymore. It the reaction does not go through right to produce more No. Two nor it goes toe left to produce more until four. And this is a difference between a normal reaction and an inquiry. Um, reaction. So we show this with this two sided arrow, it means it goes forward and reverse, whereas, for example, our reaction a salvage water would Onley give you one single arrow and this singular simply means it is on Lee going to the forward, but it's not going back. So how do we set to say clipping, for example, in this reaction into a four going to, you know, to we have the former reaction into all four. Let me put that in the brackets and we have a K. And if you can remember, this is our rate law Say, does this k one? And then let's say this is Katie. So this is our red law for the forward reaction and what is for the reverse the same time we have que two and 02 square. Now, this one is our reverse read long So into a four forward going with K one and two. I know to going reverse with Katie. So if you want to write in a coop you for this? What? We're going to write ISS K into a four equal Sue que two n 02 And if he just gather all the constants on one side, we'll have K one or K to you and n 02 over and to all four. And if he instead write a big K instead off K one over K two, we end up with N 02 square, right by and to 04 Now, basically, this case is going to be our equilibrium constant. And over here, what we'll have is going to be products overreacting and whatever number we have before the products or reactions, they go to the power over here just the same way we did in, uh, the rate off the reactions. Now, if you want to make a graph for this, what we will have is going to be something like this first throwing our graph and this is going to be concentration versus time graph time and the concentration and the sea use black for the n o to the products. So at the time, zero we don't have any of the products. And if you'll start increasing and at some point it will be constant and in the same way at the start we have Onley in two or four, so it will start decreasing, until, at some point it won't change. So when these concentrations stop changing, let's say they stopped changing. After this point of time, they will say this reaction is at this time is reached to the equilibrium because it could be a means. Either the reactions or the products do not change in concentration. But how would it look like if this cave forward, which is K one, is equal to Kate Reverse, which is Katie? So let's try to draw that graph to actually let me get rid off this entire page and trauma graph from scratch. This is again going to be our time versus concentration graph, and what we will have is from in 204 having to an 02 Let's start. We have no end to know, too, and at the Coop room will stop increasing the concentration off you know, to there. Let's start with Onley have into a four, and this decreases and at some time it feels stop changing. So at this rates at this time period, once it stops changing, actually, it should be here when it starts changing in time concentration graph. This will also say this reach to equilibrium. But at this point where they're at the same concentration, you say que forward is equal to Kate. Reverse. Hence we get this value. And if you want to think about this, we're going to talk about that later. But what we have is que forward in 204 That's equal to Kate. Reverse off, You know, to square and came forward over k reverse equals two n 02 square Do I buy and to all four. So where if this equipe, um is there both off? Our reactions and products are the same Then basically what we see is came forward and Kate reverse are the same. So we'll get a one over here. So, you know, squared divided by intel four is going to be also equal to one at this very point If care forward and Kate reverse artist thing
Acids and Bases