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Comparison Of Gases Liquids And Solids

A liquid is a state of matter in which a substance changes its shape easily and takes the form of its container, and in which the substance retains a constant volume independent of pressure. As a result of this, a liquid does not maintain a definite shape, and its volume is variable. The characteristic properties of a liquid are surface tension, viscosity, and capillarity. The liquid state has a definite volume, but it also has a definite surface. The volume is uniform throughout the whole of the liquid. Solids have a fixed shape and a definite volume, but they do not have a definite surface. The volume of a solid does not vary, but the volume of a liquid may vary.

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Theodore D.

Carleton College

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University of Central Florida

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University of Maryland - University College

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University of Kentucky

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Video Transcript

So in the previous section, we talked about one state of matter called classes. And so for this section we will be learning more about another state of matter called liquids, and to talk about liquids. Let's actually talk about all of the different states of matter because liquids can be thought of as an in between between gasses and solids. And so let's recall that for I guess these are compressible. And so if you apply some kind of pressure, you can change the volume of the gas. And when you have a solid when you try to do the same thing, solids are actually non compressible because there is no space in between the particles, and so let's actually draw a little diagram on the bottom. So when we think of gas is, we think of particles with a lot of space in between them, because the intern molecular forces are very weak. And for solids, the inter molecular forces are actually very strong, and so solids can be thought of as particles that are very closely packed to one another, and so we can see visually wide. The ass is our compressible because of all of this free space, whereas for solids they're not compressible because there are no spaces in between the particles. And so for liquids, we can say the same thing in the sense that they are not compressible, because when we think of liquids, we also think of the fact that they know have spaces in between them. And so because of that, they are not compressible. And another important property of liquids is that they have stronger intern molecular interactions. And so what that means is that the bonds for liquids are strong enough to keep the particles together so it makes one type of phase. And so you can recognize water when you see it, because the water particles are bound together. And so in the case of water, we can imagine that the inter molecular forces are strong enough and so it can bind to itself so that it makes almost like a mess. Um, that you can see, but it's actually not quite like a solid, and so solids have the strongest inter molecular interactions, the point where it restricts the movement on the particles, and so the particles actually cannot flow or move around one another. And so we can say that ourselves. The structure is rigid, but in the case of liquids, we know that, um, the inter molecular interactions are strong enough to keep the liquid together, but it's not weak enough to the point where it is a gas. And so gasses have weak inter molecular interactions, and so again, forecasts is the interactions are very weak, and so the particles are not bound to one another. But for liquids, they are strong enough to bind the liquid together. But it's not strong enough to make the structure rigid, and so liquids can be thought of as a fluid good as well as gas is. And because it is a fluid, the particles can move around one another and take the shape of a container, whereas the solid is a structured mess, and so another important property is that liquid have a high density. As a result, it's non compatibility, and we could say the same thing for solids, whereas four gasses, these have low density, and so we can imagine liquids again as an in between of the gas and the solid, mainly because of the strength of the intern, molecular interactions and so in this section, we'll talk about the different kinds of inter molecular interactions because there are some that are stronger than others and in comparison to the intra molecular bonding or, in other words, the bonding between the atoms. It's much weaker than those kinds of interactions, but still significant enough thio affect the behavior, uh, matter on DSO. We'll learn a bit more about that in the next few videos.