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Liquids - Intro

A liquid is a nearly incompressible fluid that conforms to the shape of its container but retains a (nearly) constant volume independent of pressure. As such, a liquid is one of the four fundamental states of matter (the others being solid, gas and plasma). A liquid is made up of tiny vibrating particles of matter, such as atoms, held together by intermolecular bonds. Water is, by far, the most common liquid on Earth. Like a gas, a liquid is able to flow and take the shape of a container. Most liquids resist compression, although others can be compressed. Unlike a gas, a liquid does not disperse to fill every space of a container, and maintains a fairly constant density. A distinctive property of the liquid state is surface tension, leading to wetting phenomena.

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So in the previous topic, we learned about one state of matter called gasses, so liquids can be thought of as the intermediate between a gas and a solid, specifically because of the inter molecular bonds between the molecules, which are weak enough for liquids to act like included but strong enough to hold the molecules together. And so the first type of inter molecular force that will learn about is to surgeon forces or in London dispersion forces, which are the weakest type of inter molecular interaction that are dominant among non polar molecules. So dispersion forces can be thought of as temporary type ALS that can interact with other non polar molecules or other die polls, but specifically in the case for the non polar molecules, they can make induced titles, and these tend to increase in strength with size of the molecule. Stifel Duyvil bonding is stronger than spreading forces because these are more permanent week devils, so the interactions between the partially charged negative and positive regions of the molecule actually make the intern molecular bonds stronger, and so these tend to have higher boiling points and freezing points than non polar molecule. Hydrogen bonding is the strongest type of inter molecular force because of the difference in electro negativity between the hydrogen and oxygen nation and flooring on DSO. These air so large that the electrons are localized around the electron negative Adam, leaving the hydrogen bear with a positive charge. And so this type of bonding causes large increases in boiling points and freezing points because of the strength of thes inter molecular forces. And since type ALS are charged species, it can interact with islands in such a way that the disciples can orient themselves to fully includes islands like in the case of water, creating salvation shelves around the sodium and chloride islands when we dissolve salt and water. And all of these inter molecular forces play a significant role in influencing the physical properties of liquids such as discussed E and surface tension, which increases with increasing intern molecular bonding strength and an important consequence of inter molecular forces is also a killer action, which is important for product separation for chromatography and inter. Molecular forces are also important for understanding these changes because these changes occur because of the breaking or making of inter molecular box and the strength of intern. Molecular bonding will also influence the energy required to melt or vaporize a substance, so understanding these forces can help us predict how easy it is for a substance to change states. Inter molecular bonding also influences favorite pressure, specifically the amount of gas that coexists with a liquid and increases with decreasing intern molecular frank and finally an important application of inter molecular forces in understanding the structure of liquid crystals, which formed due to differences in polarity as well as inter molecular bonding.