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what is radio activity? So Mary Carey and instructor for find out some certain nuclear are unstable and they spontaneously decomposed and any smaller particles from themselves to become different atoms and gain stability. Before I start with this type off radio activity topic, I want to remind you guys how we're looking at the atoms. Let's say this is the atomic symbol. What we have is over here the proton number. They also call this the atomic number. And over here we have the mess and the mass consist off the proton number and the neutral number. I'm going to write it over here. You don't see that in the periodic table, but this is the neutron number. So basically, when we add neutral number and atomic number, we get the mass. Now, keeping that in mind, we start with the alpha decay. What alpha decay is you show it has two protons and two neutrons making a four often atomic mass. And since this is the same with hell, Liam, because it has two protons and two neutrons speaking, show it as Helen too, for example, appearance nuclear. I'd like uranium has 92 Proton number and 238 mess and recall the first one the parents and the second one is the daughter. So what? We're going to get ISS. We're going to emit a hell Liam or Alfa, Whichever you want to use two and four. Now there's 92 has to be equal to the right hand side, some off the proton numbers. So it will be 90 and 90 corresponds to t h in the product table. So dumb ass is also going to be the some off the right hand side. So to 38 minus four is going to be 2 34. The important part is what we have on the right hand side is once you add the masses and the atomic numbers, they have to correspond to the parents. And the second one we call the daughter the second one, we're going to talk about ISS. The beta de que. What happens here is a nuclear. It is emitting in electron. And how does it do that? We first showed the beta particle as a negative one in zero. So let's make an example. Let's say Radu, which has 88 protons and 228 Mass is going to go through Evita, the K native one and zero. So again, we need to have the proton number on this atom we're going to put to once we add the beat of the case. Negative one, it will be 88. So it has to be 89 8 to 9 minus one is going to be 88. So the atom that corresponds to in the, uh, predictable is a C. And we have 202 and eight mass. As you can see, the mass did not change because this is a zero. So what does also tells us is there was a neutron over here and that neutron got converted into a proton. So the neutral number decreased by one on radio and the proton number, the, uh, atomic number increased by one. The TERT one is going to be the gamma. A mission Jimmy is not a particle is Let's say it's a high energy off, uh, ray. And the important part about dig Emma is there's basically no mass change. But the gamma goes with, um, the other type off emissions like, for example, all for the K and, for example, we gave the uranium as example 92 2. 38. This can go through and all for the K and a fold by gamma emission. And of course, the daughter nuclear I'd The next one is going to be the positron emission. What positron emission is positron is a particle almost like a beater, but instead off a negative one. This time it has opposed to one. So how we can show that is we can, uh, right the positron as electron but a plus one version off the electron. And since the electrons masses are zero, there is no mass over here. So this plus one is not corresponding to a proton. But it corresponds to a plus change in the Nikolay I'd How that happens is basically giving example. Let's say you have full source 30 mass and 15 atomic number and it goes to she'll assume 14 and 30 plus oppose. It's wrong. So what happens over here is this. 15 is the proton one proton In this number 15 changes into one neutron. So the mass is still the same. But the number of protons are decreased by one, and that change is emitted by Dispose it's run and lastly, we have the electron capture. This is pretty straightforward. What we have is an electron is getting captured, which means a proton becomes in neutron. For example, we have rubidium and this is 44 in Mass and, uh, in the atomic number and 92 mass. And this captures electrons. So what happens is for to walk 4 to 4 minus one you have 43 and the corresponding at M T C. And the mass is still the same because this is a zero. So what happens is a proton over here is getting degrees. So it changes from proton to neutron since the mass is still the same.

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