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What is a state function? List some examples of state functions.
Explain the difference between a pure covalent bond, a polar covalent bond, and an ionic bond.
What is the common ion effect?
If energy flows out of a chemical system and into the surroundings, what is the sign of Esystem?
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in this question, they ask us to predict the decay for the following questions, either. Positron orbital decay. Let's start with the first one. They have magnesium 28. So magnesium has 16. Sorry, 12 protons. And to make it a mass off 28 we need 16 neutrals. So once you look at the mercy, 16 over 12 is going to give us 1.33. But once you look at that valley off stable T graph, what we're going to see is this should be and once. So what do we need to do? We need to decrease number off neutrons and we need to increase the number of protons. To be able to do that. What we can do is a beat, a decay. Let's show that mine is, um 12 turned to eight and 16 goes to a B to the king. That will be minus 1 to 0. So it will be 13 that corresponds to aluminum and still 28. But this number will be 15 now the 15/13 is much closer. 21 For the second example, we again have magnesium. But this time the masses 22. So what we have is 10 neutrals. 10/12 is going to be 0.83. Now. This is too low. So what we have is a positron emission. Mine is, um, 12 to 22 10 insurance with a positron emission. What this happens is commerce to sodium with 11 and still 22. So the number of neutrons are going to be 11 to now. 11/11 is exactly one that looks like a good emission. And for the sea, what we have, it's molybdenum. And what it has is 42 protons and 100 to mass, which means 60 insurance and the and over Z ratio equals still 1.43. This is too heavy again. What we should have is an oversea ratio about 1.3. We need to decrease the amount off the neutrals that we have. So what will happen is going to be again, as we did over here. It posed a beta decay, and what we have is 4200 to 60 goes to Gabita de que and T h. This will be 43 and the mass is not going to change. But the neutrons decreased by one. So once again, what you want to do is to fight the neutral per proton. And if that is over, like they over which I mean is 0.1 means pretty much way over off the number that it should have. Then it should go with deposits with the beater, the king, because we need to increase the number of protons. Whereas if that number is lower, like over here what we had 0.83 instead off a one. Then if we'll go with the positron decay, which means one off, the protons are going to be changed into a neutron and this neutral per proton number is going to increase.