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What is a dipole moment?
What is kinetic energy? What is potential energy? List some examples of each.
What is a state function? List some examples of state functions.
Explain the difference between a pure covalent bond, a polar covalent bond, and an ionic bond.
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so always can be thought of as a mixture, different metals or actually, different types of species that include medals as a host. And so there are two different types of always that we can have. And so we have one case where we can have substitution als, Eloise, and so substitution alloys are those where we have some kind of metal. I'm replacing some kind of other metal. Um, that is the middle host. And so in this case, we have metals that are similar in size. And so if we have metals that are of a similar size, this would not affect the structure at all, because there is not a lot of distortions or different types of warping that you could have in your material. But this would actually just change of the properties of the overall material that you make. And so allies are actually very useful again for changing all the properties of specific medals because pure metals, our only so useful and so in industry. Um, there are a lot of examples where we mixed metals to create better materials, and so some of these include things like breast. But anyway, for a substitution Eloise. We have a case where one medal is replacing another host metal because they're similar in size and so those could just walk back. And so another type of alloy is actually called interstitial Eloise interstitial. And so we're in traditional Eloise. We have a case where we have a smaller kind of on, um, in this case, let's say some Adam A going into the interstitial sites of a material. And so if we recalled from when we talked about the different types of packing that we have, we notice that there are these little spaces in between the layers of packing that you can possibly have for a mouth and so we can actually fit interstitial atoms into those sites to actually change the properties of the material. And so one very common example is actually steal, and so steel is actually made up of iron with carbon atoms as interstitial. And so this is something that can treat them the material, because you were adding different atoms into the holes to make the material stronger overall and so we can actually draw this out to further demonstrate the different examples. And so let's say that for some alloy. You have these fears, and so this is just some generic lattice on DSO. Now let's say that we have some kind of normative Ariel and let's just call this middle one. And so we have a case where we have substantial allies, and so we were to draw these again. We can actually swap out some of these atoms for the other type of Adam. And so let's say you have some middle to and some mental one. And so again we can actually swap out some of these medals for what I'll do. And so this would be one type of Allah because you have a mixture of two different metals. And so the reason why this can happen is because the sizes are the same. And so the energetic L swapping one for the other in some ways are not as bad in terms of swapping it out for a much larger metal atom or a much smaller metal atom. Um, and so we see a lot of these changes of her, um, especially with minerals as well in nature. And so this is a substitution. Allow alloy, which is purely the swapping of a host mental for another mouth. And we can also have a case where we have interstitial occupying the empty sites in a host Adam in a host medal. And so we can actually represent this, like so? So we can essentially have little atoms occupying the spaces. So these are interns, social Eloise again because we have Adams occupying these small spaces in between. And so this is kind of out of the scope of this course. But if you take something like Israel Science, um, we actually find out that a lot of these different interstitial sites are actually tied unusual sights because they're a swell, um, and those are the empty sites of a lot of structures like FCC on DSO. We won't be going into the different types of sites just because it is again out of the scope of this course. But it is how important to note that even though we have close packed structures, we also have spaces in between them where we can actually fit different atoms. And so there are tons of energetic that go into whether or not you can fit these atoms into these spaces. But under various conditions, this is actually possible and will actually change material and will actually change the physical properties of the material. And so let's just legal this, um And so again, these are the different types of Eloise that you can have for a given material.
Acids and Bases