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University of Maryland - University College
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What is the pH of a buffer when the concentrations of both buffer components (the weak acid and its conjugate base) are equal? What happens to the pH when the buffer contains more of the weak acid than the conjugate base? More of the conjugate base than the weak acid?
If two objects, A and B, of different temperature come into direct contact, what is the relationship between the heat lost by one object and the heat gained by the other? What is the relationship between the temperature changes of the two objects? (Assume that the two objects do not lose any heat to anything else.)
What is a buffer? How does a buffer work? How does it neutralize added acid? Added base?
Explain the difference between a pure covalent bond, a polar covalent bond, and an ionic bond.
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So now that we've talked more about medals specifically metallic bombing, let's actually talk about the Electron C model. And so we've mentioned this a bit before. But to remind ourselves, um, medals tend to make cannons, and so these can range from M plus thio two plus every plus or, in some cases, even more bus and other oxidation states. But essentially, medals tend to make ions, and so, more often than not, the models want to lose electrons. Thio gain the noble Gas corporation, or configurations that maximize the stability. Another cases the degeneracy or even the occupation of different atomic orbital's, which are energetically Maura favorite. And so, because of this, metals do not want their electrons, and so it will actually create an electronic see when it is bonded to other metals. And so let's say you have some kind of metal that is positively charged, and we have a whole array of these in some kind of structure because we also know that metallic solids have analyze. And so what happens is that we have electrons associated with each of the medals, but they can actually move around freely, and so we have the same number of medals and the same number of electrons, except for the fact that all of these electrons are shared. And so we can imagine that the electrons almost make some kind of clear that connects all of the metal ions together. And so we think of this as an electron, see, because the metals are essentially trapped within thes sections of electrons. And so again he medals well typically make hounds, and so these electrons are very loosely bound to in the middle. And so when we talk about the fact that we have non directional bonding, we have non directional bonding because the electrons are being shared between all the medals and there is no preferred direction for it because it can essentially create bonds and all on different directions in three dimensional space. And so the electron C model is very important in terms of understanding the behavior of metals because we know that metals are very connective, but they are also very malleable. And so this makes a lot of sense because if you have a structure with electrons that are basically a bonded in all different directions, you're gonna actually move three medals without breaking the material. And so we can again think of electrons acting like glue or even acting like Buddy connecting the metal ions together. But it is important to note that this is a very simplistic model of how metals are structured. But this is useful in terms of again understanding why the medals can move around so easily and still stay connected and thus have the specific physical properties, especially the fact that it is conducted as well as the fact that it is very malleable.
Acids and Bases