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What is a buffer? How does a buffer work? How does it neutralize added acid? Added base?
What is meant by the percent ionic character of a bond? Do any bonds have 100% ionic character?
What is heat capacity? Explain the difference between heat capacity and specific heat capacity.
What is the pH range of human blood? How is human blood maintained in this pH range?
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And so the next type of solid that will be looking at is called the Ionic solid. And so we've seen I wanna compounds before when we were talking about the different types of molecules that you can have. And so these again are made of ionic compounds. And so that includes things like sodium chloride, KBR and things of that sort. And so when we have an ionic compound, we have a case where we have one Adam donating an electron. It too, the other Adam. And so in this case, we have a certain mile donating an electron thio the chlorine to make chloride, and so we end up having an ionic bond. And so what happens is that we have to differently charge species attracted to each other on DSO. This means that we have electrostatic forces that are formed between these aunts. And so if we think about the record in terms of its place in a whole lot of or solid, we know that there are electrostatic forces between all of the islands because they are all opposite. We charged or released. Well, we have the electrostatic forces. It is between something that is positively charged and something that's negatively charged. And so we have, um, and attraction going on because of these differences in charges. And so as a result of these electrostatic forces, the island solids also have very high melting points because it takes a lot of energy to break these intra molecular bonds. And because of the structure, we know that the Ionic solids are hard and brittle, and this will actually make more sense once we talk a bit more about the structure. And so for ionic solids, they come in a variety of different types of structures, but for the most part they are some variant of the simple cubic lattice. And so we'll see things like the face centered cubic. You've already send your cubic as well, simple cubic and hybrids of those types of structures. And we also have more structures that we won't be covering, like the zinc blend and things of that sort. But for this particular topic, we'll just focus on the ones that we've seen before, And so if we have some kind of you, and so we can actually draw out what a rock salt structure is. And so for a sodium chloride. You have a rock salt structure, and what that means is that essentially each of the irons will take up a point that is actually corresponding. Thio face centered Cubic and so let's actually draw out these ions. And so let's actually focus on the sodium plus off first. And so since we know that it is sec, that means we have atoms on all the corners of Cuba, and we also have, or this case ions on the chorus of the Cube as well as on the faces of the And so right now, if we just add the ions on the corners, we have eight in total. Let's actually make sure we have a key, and we also know that we have ions on the faces of as well. And so there are six faces in tall. So let's make sure that we also include these, and that's actually draw a guideline because we will also be filling out the spaces for the chlorine Anna. And so, uh, but this particular structure, we've only included the sodium ions and so thes power. All the sodium ions will be located when we are drawing out you itself and now for the chlorine in ions. These will be filling out the other empty spaces in the crystal structure. And so I'll be drawing chloride when And so we know that for the chlorides there will be occupying these spaces between each of the items. And so we have four on the top, and we also have them on the side in between thes ions as well as a volunteer. And so we see that we have for over here, and we should also have one right in the center. And so, for this particular structure, this would be the rock salt structure, because, well, all of these ions are occupying these particular sites of unit cell, which will actually call the octahedron sites. But we won't be talking about that in much detail. Um, but for the most part, we have different sites on the unit self that have different kind of sites because of the way that it is packed. And so, just for this example, Thebe sites on the middle of these as length as well as the corners, are all cathedral sites and the ones that are not pictured here but in inside the unit cell in these corners are called the tribunal site. And so the rock salt structure, the Tetra hydro sites are not occupied. But all the octo usual sites are because again, we're filling out all the possible spaces inside of unit cell, in particular these middle sections of the faces as well as the corners and the edges. And so let's recall that for a multilateral site we're thinking about some kind of species. Let's say a, um, that is bonded to six other Adams like so in the central, usual sites are the ones where we have one central atom with four different bonds. And so when we think about this as a three D structure, um, we have a case where we have three items on the bottom and three atoms on the top. And so this would be considered an off the usual structure, uh, for solids. And so we'll see this kind of packing in the unit cell, which is why we call these he off the handle. And so again, this is type of one ionic solid, And another important thing to keep in mind is that because it has this kind of structure, it is hard and brittle. And this is mainly because if you were to actually, um, break these items or try to move them around. When you do this, we end up having a case where the islands on the same charge will repel each other. And because the repulsion forces are so strong, it would actually just shatter. And so let's actually draw this up. And so if we move it so let's say we're just looking at this particular row. And so how the sodium kind of ons and one Florida ion. And then if we look at the bomb structure there cultivating, which makes sense because they are bonded because electrostatic forces and so there are forces on attraction between all of the species. And so we move this. What happens is you end up moving this room such that the bottom row will be a line so that heat and ions and carry ons are lined up together. And so because of these were holding forces, this will end up shattering this layer. And so that's mainly why it is brutal, which is unlike the case of medals, where it is very valuable because you end up just moving the metal ions that are being connected by the sea of electrons. But in this case, we don't have a sea of electrons, and we only have electrostatic forces. And so you can only have these forces of attraction to keep the whole solid together. Or we have these opposing forces that will actually result in the brutal life nature of the material.
Acids and Bases