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University of Kentucky
If two objects, A and B, of different temperature come into direct contact, what is the relationship between the heat lost by one object and the heat gained by the other? What is the relationship between the temperature changes of the two objects? (Assume that the two objects do not lose any heat to anything else.)
What is thermochemistry? Why is it important?
What is heat? Explain the difference between heat and temperature.
If the internal energy of the products of a reaction is higher than the internal energy of the reactants, what is the sign of E for the reaction? In which direction does energy flow?
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So the next type of solid that we will be looking at is called molecular solid. And so I'm like are Solids are essentially made of conveniently bottom materials, and so we can think of them as the opposite of ionic compounds. And so again, for about ourselves, we have available bonds, so this includes things like Water Mom. Except since we're talking about solid, we'll be talking about ice as well as things like Dry Ice, which is CO two. And we'll also be looking at thanks like sulfur, which has a blanket formula of essay. And these are the intra molecular bonds that will observe in between the atoms. But essentially, molecular solids are bonded together because of inter molecular forces. And so these include things like hydrogen bonding and learning dispersion forces or disciples, as we've seen in last topic. Um, and so because of this, thes materials tend tohave low melting points in comparison to the ionic compounds just because the forces are so much weaker on and again, let's recall that for intra molecular forces, those tend to be a lot stronger than the inter molecular forces. And so, for the case of molecular solids, when you are melting some kind of salt, you are bringing these intra molecular forces rather than the intra molecular forces, which again results in the low melting point. And so thieves can have a variety of different shapes. And so, if this example, I'll just be showing a case where we have ice and so fruitful. Nice has hydrogen bonding between the water molecules because of the fact that the oxygen is a very electron negative Adam and what it is bonded to hydrogen. It will pull the electrons more closer to the oxygen rather than the hydrogen. And so we actually can see that we have a negative partial charge on the hydrogen on the auction and a partial positive charge on 100. And so what happens is that the war molecules can orient themselves to make structures that are bonded via hydrogen bonding. So let's say that the options are presented as run and the higher regions are presented as blue, and so we can have a structure where we have Austrians forming These hexagonal like structure is which resemble the structure of cycle hack Sainz especially indicates of graphing, which we'll talk about later, essentially we can have these kinds of interactions. So you didn't have Oudejans wanted to water? Think so on. We're gonna have these interactions, which are hydrant bombing interactions. And so these ones were at because of the differences in charges these will interact. Use one too. Right? And these ones right on this will create. Each morning was on the market. And so let's actually changed this so we can actually have dehar gin molecules. Boy, this direction molecule is going to start tonight and so we can have this construct chur where it actually looks very similar. Thio as if this were a carbon, um cycle. Heck saying, But essentially we have these hydrogen bonds interacting with the auctions to make this kind of ring. And we can also extend the structure to create a solid on DSO. It's important to note that for this particular solid, the molecular solids are being bound together because of these very weak in from like my forces. And so it's important that that just because they're weak does not mean that the solids can afford because obviously, um, we've seen ice before, and it does not shatter when you just touch it on, but it is so pretty strong. But it's just that in comparison to the Ionic solids, um, it's just not as strong, but so strong enough to actually form a solid. And so that is one more thing to keep in mind when we're talking about these different types of solids and the type of bonding that we observed between the molecules as well as inside the molecules themselves. Think so again, if you continue to stretch out the structure, we can make essentially a lattice. And if we actually just draw the latest points, we know that each water molecule is a basis, which is essentially a more specific version of a lattice point and is more representative of what you want your soldiers made of probably and also draw out the lettuce, which is a more simple representation of what the molecular looks like in three D space. And so we drop this latest point, we would end up looking like this, and so we can continue the structure, Um, because it repeats in space, and so the structure actually just looks like, well, Mexicans. But for the most part, we can draw lattice points for the structures because they are crystalline and so we'll see someone. It's like And so we have for a molecular solids. These can be thought of s network solid, and for the most part, they are bonded via intern molecular forces. And because of that, they have fairly low melting point.
Acids and Bases