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Rice University

University of Maryland - University College

Brown University

03:16

Kevin Chimex

If two objects, A and B, of different temperature come into direct contact, what is the relationship between the heat lost by one object and the heat gained by the other? What is the relationship between the temperature changes of the two objects? (Assume that the two objects do not lose any heat to anything else.)

01:48

Keenan Mintz

What is electronegativity? What are the periodic trends in electronegativity?

05:57

Monique Cook

What is energy? What is work? List some examples of each.

01:51

What is meant by the percent ionic character of a bond? Do any bonds have 100% ionic character?

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So in the previous video, we talked about diffusion in the sense that we can have some kind of guests that is clustered, actually spread out over time. And so let's say you have a container with some kind of gas that is already in the container has shown by these blue particles, and you also have another gas that was inserted but in a localized area, which I'll just make red. And so if we have to, gas is in the same container. We know that over time the gasses will mix from in the sense the red gas will disperse. They're all the container and spread up, and deep blue gas will also be spread. And so we can say that the system on the right has reached equilibrium in the sense that the red particles are not really changing its location anymore, because it is evenly distributed in this container as well as a blue container. And so again, if we have these two gasses and the container over time, they will mix more. In this sense, the red particle will diffuse into the blue particles pensive um, the reason why this process occurs is because of something called entropy. And so when we learn entropy, we learn that entropy can be thought of as disorder in the sense that you have a system that is were ordered or cluster together, and then over time it becomes more spread out. And so that is something called disorder by entropy can be thought of as diffusion, which is something that we learned before in the sense that you have a system that is clustered together. And so it is actually more energetically favorable if it is more spread out. And so the reason why this happens is because of the fact that there is a higher probability that the gasses can occupy these kinds of states versus this single state. And so we could talk about degrees of freedom, which is something that is more covered in depth. If you take this is school mechanics. Um, but here I'll just show a little preview, Uh, what we mean in terms of states that a system and occupied. And so let's say, for example, you have three different locations that you can occupy, and you have three particles in total. And so, if you were to rearrange these in such a way that each space can occupy as many particles as you want. We can see that we can arrange thes three particles in three different ways. Um, in the case for this first system, if you want everything to be clustered. So, for example, if you have three particles, we can put them all in this space, which will just call space one as well as space to hands face three. Uh, but we also know that you could potentially group all of these particles together and keep them clustered. But we also know that we can also occupy these other spaces at the same time. And so if we think about the second type of system or second type of ordering, we actually have a lot more different ways to rearrange these particles. And so we can have two in space one and one in space, too, as well as to in Space One and Juan in Space three, as well as this combination where we have two here and one here as well as his combination. And we can also have a case where we have two particles in the third space and one in the first as well as one of the second. And we also have a case where we have one particle occupying one of the three spaces. And so we can see that for the first case, we have less choices in terms of how we can organize these three different particles in this container. Whereas for the second case, there are numerous ways to actually spread out these particles among the spaces that you can occupy. And so in the same way, we know that, um, in terms of probability, it is more likely that the system will actually occupy these states because there are more options versus the for system where there are less ways to organize thes clusters of particles. And so again, this is the primary forest for why things will mix on defused. And so we think about it in terms of the possible ways that the system can exist as, um and so if there are more options than that means it is, more probable tatty system will exist in this manner, And so that explains why we observe this tendency toward mixing. If you have two different substances in a container

Kinetics

Chemical Equilibrium

Acids and Bases

Aqueous Equilibria

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26:10

08:53

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34:06

06:02

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