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What is the pH of a buffer when the concentrations of both buffer components (the weak acid and its conjugate base) are equal? What happens to the pH when the buffer contains more of the weak acid than the conjugate base? More of the conjugate base than the weak acid?
What is calorimetry? Explain the difference between a coffee-cup calorimeter and a bomb calorimeter. What is each designed to measure?
What is a state function? List some examples of state functions.
What is the common ion effect?
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So for this topic, we will be learning about chemical bonding, and so chemical bonds occur so that molecules can achieve and energetically stable state compared to that of its individual ends. And we can demonstrate this by using Lewis structures. So Lewis structures are a simple way to show the formation of bonds between molecules and why specific bonds will occur between specific atoms, with many following the octet rules or, in other words, the ability to achieve the noble gas configuration. And so ionic bonding is one type of bonding that involves one Adam, typically a metal, donating an electron to another atom, which are typically non metals. And we can often predict whether or not an ionic bond will occur based on the differences in electro negativity as well as the electron configuration of the different elements, so as block elements in particular will lose electrons, while the P block elements will generally gain electrons, which is clear based on the number of electrons needed to achieve the noble gas configuration. Transition metals, on the other hand, also tend to donate electrons like medals in group one and group to for the S block elements. But they also have a more complicated bonding system because it has electrons in the D orbital. And so the bonding for transition metals cannot always be described using Lewis structures. And, in addition, Thio the ionic bonding or other words one Adam donating electrons to another Adam. We can also have a bonding situation. Where to Adams will share the electrons, which is called covalin bonding. So Covalin Bonding can be described using the ideas of attraction and repulsion between two atoms and can have characteristics similar to Ionic Bonnie, depending on the specific atomic species involved in pop. So, depending on the difference in electro negativity between two atoms in a bond or in other words, the electron affinity of an atom in a molecule, we can distinguish different types of law and specifically the creator. The difference in our show negativity between atoms, theme or ionic, the bonding character becomes, and the smaller the difference theme or equivalent to the bonding character becomes. When Adam's of differing electron negativity participate in covalin bonding, the unequal sharing of electrons can cause a bond polarity between two atoms and when distinct regions of negative and positive charge are created in a molecule as a result of bond polarity, a dipole moment occurs which results in important in terms molecular properties, which will be discussed later on in the course. So using lose structures will help us understand how these types of bonds will form between atoms, as well as the differences between Ionic and Co. Violent bonding. Lewis structures will also help us understand why some molecules may have more than one ballot Lewis structure, which is an important concept for understanding residents. Structures as well as formal charge. And a direct application of residents is actually understanding the concept of a romanticism, which is possible because of the ability for electrons to move around in conjugated systems for a long pi bonds, which becomes important for more advanced chemistry topic. And although many atoms are stable when they achieve an Octa, there are other cases where forming an octet is unnecessary for the stability of various molecules based on the formal charge and go Villa bonds are unique in the sense that multiple bonds can be formed between two atoms and that there is a strong correlation between the bond strength and the bond length, and so we'll cover a couple of examples showing why this is the case. And in addition to the formal charge, we can also calculate the bond order for various Lewis structures to further understand the idea, residents bonding and bond strength.