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Chemical Reactions and Stoichiometry - Intro

A chemical reaction is a process that leads to the transformation of one set of chemical substances to another. Chemical reactions can be either spontaneous, requiring no input of energy, or non-spontaneous, typically following the input of some type of energy, such as heat, light or electricity. Chemical reactions are usually characterized by a chemical change, and they yield one or more products after the reaction is complete. Chemical reactions are described with chemical equations, which symbolically present the starting materials, end products, and sometimes intermediate products and reaction conditions. Chemical reactions happen at a characteristic reaction rate at a given temperature and chemical concentration. Typically, reaction rates increase with increasing temperature because there is more thermal energy available to reach the activation energy necessary for breaking bonds between atoms.


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Video Transcript

in chemical reactions and sewage geometry will be learning about the different types of reactions that will encounter in your chemistry course and determine quantitative information from these types of reactions. Understanding how to use stoic Yama tree correctly is extremely useful in synthetic chemistry because we always need to be aware of how much material we're working with and on what scale. The difference between a milligram scale and a gram scale is huge, and scientists often work on smaller scale reactions when trying out a new reaction for the first time, or working with extensive material like molecules with rare earth metals. For reactions that worked very well and have very high yields, working on the grand scale is much more common and saves time. If we know that, we'll be using this material for multiple reactions. So in this topic we'll be learning about a variety of different things, the first one being combination and decomposition reactions which can be thought of as complementary to each other. Combination reactions are those which produced one product from multiple reactions and decomposition. Reactions are those that produce many products from a single reactant combustion. Reactions are reactions that have oxygen as one of the reactant. Reacting with another molecule. Most commonly a type of fuel containing some amount of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen to produce carbon dioxide and water when working with chemical reactions, will encounter molecules, which are written as molecular formulas, which tell us information about the number of atoms of a particular element in a molecule. In the next section, um, we can use the molecular formula to determine theme molecular weight of a molecule, which is a mass quantity in atomic mass units. We can also use molecular formulas to determine the percentage composition, which tells us the elemental composition of a molecule in percentages. M. Mueller, Mass. Can also be determined using molecular formulas and are in units of grams per mole and theme. Mueller. Math is an important value. Um, used to obtain the number of moles for a given, um, reactant or product. In a reaction, Avocados number establishes a useful relationship between moles and number of particles. Um, specifically for a single mole. There are 6.22 times 10 to the 23rd number of particles, and this value helps us determine the number of molecules or atoms for any molecule in a chemical reaction given a number of multi empirical formulas are similar to chemical formulas, but only include the smallest integer ratio of atoms in a molecule. A chemical formula can be an empirical formula, but not the other way around. So in this lecture will learn how to determine the a miracle formula based off of a percent composition, using the Mueller Mass and moles of a molecule in a particular reaction as well. Asafa cadres number. We can determine quantitative information from chemical reactions given a mass of any molecule in an equation. In this lecture will learn how to combine the concepts we learned previously to answer multiple questions about chemical reactions. And lastly, when given the mass quantities for reactant, it's important to determine which reactant is limiting or in other words, which reactant controls the moles that you need to use to determine quantitative information from a chemical reaction