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Chemical Reactions and Stoichiometry - Example 1

A chemical reaction is a process that leads to the transformation of one set of chemical substances to another. Chemical reactions can be either spontaneous, requiring no input of energy, or non-spontaneous, typically following the input of some type of energy, such as heat, light or electricity. Chemical reactions are usually characterized by a chemical change, and they yield one or more products after the reaction is complete. Chemical reactions are described with chemical equations, which symbolically present the starting materials, end products, and sometimes intermediate products and reaction conditions. Chemical reactions happen at a characteristic reaction rate at a given temperature and chemical concentration. Typically, reaction rates increase with increasing temperature because there is more thermal energy available to reach the activation energy necessary for breaking bonds between atoms.

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Video Transcript

So for first problem will be answering a couple of questions regarding the reaction, Um, as seen about. And so for the first part, identify the type of reaction we can see that we have one reactant, um, in a chemical reaction, turning into two products. And so this is a de called position reaction because it follows the format of see breaking down to a plus speak. So for the second part, we will determine the Mueller Mass of each molecule. And to do that, we can use the periodic table to figure out the mass of each atom and then accordingly determine the molar mass. So for a nitric acid, this would be 1.8 from the region, um, added to 14.1 from the nitrogen and three oxygen atoms. And so this would be 63 point 02 g Permal. And now we're going to do the same thing for the Armel you'll. So we have nitric oxide, which is just 14.1 from the nitrogen plus 16.0 from the oxygen, which will give us a more mass of 30.1 grams, Permal and lastly for oxygen, this would be two times the atomic mass of hydrogen plus oxygen, which will deal a similar mass of 18.2 grams Permal. And so for the final part of the problem, we need to determine the percentage composition of the reactive. So there is only one reacted, which is nitric acid. And so to do this, we need to use the Mueller math of nitric acid, Um, and the appropriate, um, total mass of each item to obtain the percentage composition. So in nitric acid, there is only one atom of hydrogen. And so that would mean that we would only have 1.8 numerator and we will divide this by the Mueller Mass of the molecule, which will give us 0.1 589 And when we convert that to percentage, that is one point 589 present. And now we're going to do the same thing for nitrogen. And so there is only one out of dimension and so this value would be 14.0 went and then you're going to divide this by the more mass to obtain 0.22 to 3. And when you convert that to a percent, this would be 22.23%. And lastly, for oxygen, we have three atoms of oxygen. So then we need to multiply three by the mass of one oxygen atom, and then divide this by the molar mass of the molecule just again. 63.2 And what we end up with is the dust mall, 0.7618 and in percentage. This would be 76.18%. And so this would be the percent composition of the reactive. And whenever you determine the percent composition, you always want to make sure that the percentage is that you get will add to 100 s. So we can quickly do that on the side just to make sure that the math is correct. And so if we write this out and these numbers together, we actually end up with 99.999 And if you run this, this should be 100. And so after a double checking our answer, um, this shows us that we have a deed found the correct percent composition of the metric acid, which is the reactant in this reaction