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What is electronegativity? What are the periodic trends in electronegativity?
Suppose that a buffer contains equal amounts of a weak acid and its conjugate base. What happens to the relative amounts of the weak acid and conjugate base when a small amount of strong acid is added to the buffer? What happens when a small amount of strong base is added?
What is a buffer? How does a buffer work? How does it neutralize added acid? Added base?
Explain the difference between a pure covalent bond, a polar covalent bond, and an ionic bond.
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so going off of the idea that gas particles are always in constant motion. We can describe the motion in different cases, And so when we think about something like diffusion, we think about some kind of gas that is concentrated in one area, and over time it will actually disperse and spread out. And so we could think of diffusion, uh, mixing of gasses. And so as a generic example, Let's say that you are in room and you spray some kind of perfume, so if you spray the perfume, it will be concentrated in one area. But then over time it will mix with the air around it. And so this small of the perfume we'll disperse in here then. So that's a process called diffusion. We can also define a process called effusion. It's a her effusion. This is basically the movement off. Hey, gas through a whole and the school enter another chamber in vacuum. And so when we talk about a fusion, we're thinking about the traveling off, I guess, through a small hole, and so we can imagine that if we have some kind of wall with two different chambers, we have one part where we have gas is just moving around and colliding with one another. And so if we have some kind of wall with some kind of hole, the gas particle can move through the hole and into another chamber, which we assume is under vacuum. And so this is what the fusion is. And when we're comparing heavier molecules versus water molecules, the heavier molecules will a fuse more slowly than the liar molecules. Which makes sense because the heavier molecules will not be as fast. And so it will take longer for it to a fuse into the back in chamber, which called was the were, um in comparison to a small Yeah, and we can actually write a ratio between the infusion rates for two gasses. And so, if we have the rate of confusion for some gas one divided by the rate confusion, more gas to this is actually equal to the square root, uh, one over m two. Where AM is simply the morass. And because this is a ratio, we actually don't need to convert it into kilograms from all, um and so we're answerable is perfectly fine for this. And so, um, the rate of the fusion is actually the remains scored velocity. And so we can also right that this is equal Thio, the Meat Square posse for gas one over there was a velocity four gas, too. And so we can also say that from before we have the rt over one, it's where three r T R T. And so if we actually cancel out the numerator, is because they are basically the same quantity. This actually gives us the above equation, which is one swear it won over anti. And so you can use this to solve a Friday of problems related to the infusion as well as the routines where velocity, which is the same thing as one of the fusion for a variety of gasses. So for our first problem, let's calculate the ratio of infusion rates for CO two in h two. And so today this we need to figure out the molar masses, and then from there we can figure out the ratio. And so you will. Arrest of CO two is simply 12.1 when the grams from the carbon plus two times 16 from the oxygen Instead, this gives us 44.1 transferable. And as for the warm us of hydrogen, we just have to find 1.48 for each engine. And so this will give us 2.163 inches role instead, to figure out the ratio of fusion rates of CO two to H two. We simply have theme or rest while the H two divided by the war mouse of CO two and so we can pull their their names. So for M H. 20 for MH two, this is 2.16 grams from all Yeah, for the bottom for co two, we have 44 when Sarah one grants role. And so if we pull this into our calculator, we end up with 0.214 And so this would be our ratio co two to a show, which makes a lot of sense because the co two is a lot larger than the H two, and so we should not expect the infusion rate to be very hard. And so we know that the is your brain, which I'll just say i e Let's see. Okay, out here, right this out. We know that if it is a fraction, this means that the new Rainer is much smaller than the denominator. And so that means that we have a smaller rate of a fusion for CEOs versus H two. And so our answer makes sense, and we can also use this to to retirement the molar mass of unknown compound. And so let's say for another problem, we want to determine the molar Mass while some unknown compound. Given that the ratio a fusion reads is equal Thio to your 0.82 and the other gas is nothing. And so we know that the rate a fusion I'll abbreviate for a already rate a few hand all CH four is equal to tear a point. We need to what is equal to the square root if we simply part off the polarized of methane over the more mass of a and so we can simply square both sides that somebody get 0.82 squared over um, th four over L. A. And so we can use this to isolate M A. Which is the molar mass m A. And so we have ch four over to your 0.82 squared and so we can put our guns. And so we know that the molar mass of the CH four is 12.1 plus four has 1.8 from the hydrogen, and this is divided by is your point to where And so if we put this into our calculator, we get able in the last 23.9 France. And so our answer again makes a lot of sense because the molar mass of a is larger than the molar mass of the methane. And so that means that all right show is a fraction. And so this is a good way to make sure. Now your answer is makes up. Now let's say where I was. Problem the remains. Square velocity. Oh, yes. A is 52.9 liters per minute and the remain velocity of 02 iss when 0.6 Well, don't read. It was determined. The more Ross Wild A. Consider this problem. We can still use the concept of the ratios to determine the more rest. And so we know that the rate of a OH rate of 02 is equal to these buried of 02 over a And so we know that, right? A ISS 52.9. No, there is permanent. And we know that the rate of oxygen is 20 six. No, you know his permit. And so we also know the Mueller Mass of Austin, which is simply to time 16. And so we can actually square both sides and then figure out what raised. And so we know that if we use our calculator, and so far this we get 2.57 square is able to 32 over, and they and so if we isolate all right, we got a fire molar mass of 4.85 grams promote, and so we can use our knowledge of the ratios of the infusion rates as well as the remains were velocity, um, to figure out the rest. And if we're giving the bowler math, we can find the other quantities as well