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Hybrid Orbitals

In chemistry, hybridization is the concept of mixing atomic orbitals into new hybrid orbitals suitable for the pairing of nuclei. Hybrid orbitals are very useful in the explanation of molecular geometry and atomic bonding properties.

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Video Transcript

So in the greatest video we talked about how the bonds and methane are actually equivalent with each other because of hybridization. So when hybridization occurs, um, we basically see the mixing of different atomic orbital's to make new atomic orbital's that are degenerate. And so we can explain a lot of funding due to the higher ization of different atomic orbits. And so we'll go over a couple of different SP high precision orbital's. And then from there we'll talk about a few other examples. Um, but essentially, we can have the s orbital, um, mix or hybridized with the orbital's to create new ones. And so the first type of hybridization double look at is called SB hybridization. And just to refresh our memory, we know that when we are ordering the atomic orbital's by energy level, we know that the S orbital is the lowest, and then it usually is followed by the P orbital. And so we have one atomic orbital in a lower energy, and we have three that are degenerate and in a higher energy level. And so what do we have? And SP hybridized orbital? This means that we are mixing a single s overall with a P orbital. So we have yes or overall and we also have a P orbital and in this case it doesn't matter which orientation we use. Eso let's just call this PC And let's also remember that for BP Orbital's we have a region of anti bonding on DSO. This is where you will not find an electron and we also have bonding orbital's which are areas that can form a bond with another atomic orbital as well as where we confined electron. And so if we have an SP orbital, this means that we are combining the S and P such that we can create a new orbital called nasty orbital. And so what happens is that now we have two areas where we can make orbital. And so we have one in this direction and one in this direction. And so we can imagine that if we combine the s orbital and the PC orbital, we now have two areas where we can have electrons residing. And so if we draw an energy diagram for this, we now have to orbital's that are degenerate because we're mixing the S with the PC and we still have the P X and the P Y that are degenerate, but we have now changed the pz. Let's make this in a very light color. Eso. Now we have used the PC to make the ESPYs and what's also draw a shadow of the S or role that we used tohave. And so we basically mix thes two orbital's together to create a new set of atomic photos. And usually we associate the SP hybridization with triple bonds. And this is mainly because when you have a hybridized Orel thes will make single bonds. But we also know that the P atomic or girls are involved with pi bonds. And so if we have a triple bond like so, we have the middle one, which is a signal bon as indicated by the symbol, and we also have the two other ones that are indicated by the pi symbol. And so an example of this would be something like carbon monoxide, which is basically a carbon triple bonded to the oxygen as well as something like Imagine guests, which is also a Tripoli bonded. And so these types of bonds have SP hybridization on DSO in this case, we have electrons that are occupying the SPS as well as the View orbital's. And so the ones that are bonding participate in P x, p y and S B. And the lone pairs actually reside in the SP or real. And so this is SP hyper station. And so we can also have something called SP two. And when you have sp two hybridization, this is essentially the combination oven s orbital A p orbital. Which one is easy peasy? Um and we also have another atomic orbital which I'll just resonate SPX And so what happens is that now that we have instead of just two of these SPS, we actually have three of them in different orientations. And so now we have three degenerate or rules. So sorry, let's just leave this as energy. And so if you look at an energy diagram, we now have three d gendered sp two orbital's the scene here and we now have one remaining the orbital And if we draw our shadow ones, we used tohave BP X and the PC, and he s But now we have three areas where we can make bonds and so we have three degenerate atomic or girls. And so these tend to be associated with double bonds, Which makes sense because we have electrons that can occupy the P orbital, as well as some that are occupy the Sigma and the other SB two or roles can be used for other lone pairs or other single bomb. And so an example of this would be a carbon dioxide, which is the double bound Oh, and the auction has some low in Paris. And so in this case, we have a signal bond, Uh, that is using the SB two, and we have the PI bonds that occupy the P Y. Um, and another example. It would be something like auction gas, which is also a double bond between the oxygen's and cities have well in Paris as well. And so in this case we have the lone pairs occupying the SP two atomic orbital, and we have the one bond in the double bond occupying SP two, and we have the last bond which is the pie bond in the P y, or honestly, any type of P orbital. But in this case, we just specified the P Y. And so that is SBC hybridization. So here we are, creating three equivalent bonds, um, using one s and two p atomic. And so another one that will be looking at a lot is the sp three. And essentially, this is the combination of one s and three p orbital's. So, in this case, we're using all of them, So I'm gonna throw them here, and we also have our g y, which I'll just right here. And so now, instead of just having two or three, we now have four places where we can make a cold wind bonds, and so let's control them here. It's a new user object to these arrest. Me too. And these are S P threes. And so, in this case, we've combined all of the atomic orbital's for the S and P. And so we have for Detroit and Orbital's. So these are all sp three. And if we compare them to the orbital's that we had before, we used tohave the X, p, y and P C as well as an s, and now we have four equivalent funding. Ordell's to make funds in civvies are typically associate with single bonds. And so, an example that you will probably see a lot is my name. And so we actually saw this in our previous video. Um, so let's go back to my thing. So here we know that all of the bonds are the same because of the S P three hybridization. And so when you look at the electrons and how they are being used for this molecule, all of them are being used in the S P three. And so that would be how you would explain why all the bonds are identical for methane and another example would be an H three. And so for NH three, we see something very similar. And so hydrogen makes three bonds and each one being with 100 in. And so we can see that the nation is using S P threes to make the bonds and the last as B three atomic orbital will house the load pair. And so again, the reason why we can have these number of different bonds, especially with pie systems, is because of the fact that we have hybridization and specifically we can use the P atomic or roles for pie bonding and the hybridized or rolls forests in my bonding