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Explain the difference between a pure covalent bond, a polar covalent bond, and an ionic bond.
What is heat? Explain the difference between heat and temperature.
What is heat capacity? Explain the difference between heat capacity and specific heat capacity.
Explain how the sum of heat and work can be a state function, even though heat and work are themselves not state functions.
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So in this topic we will be talking about molecular geometry, specifically how molecules can exist in three D space, so loose structures can be useful for determining the bonding between different atoms. But it does not give us a good idea of how molecules look like in three dimensional space. So the B S E P R model, which stands for de Valence Shell Electron pair repulsion model, helps us understand why molecules have specific geometries by using the idea of electron repulsion to maximize the bond angles between atoms for a number of bonds and lone pairs and a bond and a lone pair can each count as a single electron domain, which can then be used to help assign the geometry of a molecule TVs. CPR model is useful for central items that also exceed the octet and is a simple but still helpful model that includes many types of molecular geometries. And this model can also be used to describe the general strip of a larger molecule or those with more than one central at and like Lewis structures. We can also understand the polarity observed for different molecules based on the molecular shape and another important idea behind bonding is the idea that bonds can occur because of your role overlap or, in other words, the combination of atomic orbital's to create new regions that electrons form or, in other words, the combination of atomic orbital's to create new regions that electrons from two atoms can reside in. And, um, this is something that can be drived in quantum mechanics if you're interested in learning about that. And so it's really cool to see that we can drive this using formulas to help us understand why bonds a care and our idea of using valence electrons for bonding based on the electron configuration has been useful. But it doesn't explain why we see a large number of equivalent bonds for various molecules. And so to address this issue, we bring up the idea of hybrid or rules where we can combine various atomic orbital's to make a larger number of equivalent degenerate or bills that can be used to make bonds with other atoms. And so we can combine a number of S and P orbital's to make the SP hybridized or roll the S P two and the S P three, and for hyper violence molecules. We can also use the orbital's to create an even larger number of degenerate or bills like the D S P three, which allows five equipment bonds as well as three D two SP three, which can allow for six equivalent box and a useful consequence of hybrid Orbital's is actually the possibility of making more than one bond, and so P Orbital's can be used to make double and triple bonds between atoms, which can lead to residents or Rome anticipate E and Bondi localization for a variety of different molecules. Molecular overall diagrams are a useful visual representation of how we can create molecular orbital's from the atomic or goals four different atoms again using the fact that we can combine the atomic orbital's to make new ones based on quantum mechanics. And although about diagrams can be very complex for molecules with three or more Adams die atomic molecules can be used to show how we can predict the number of bonds like and formed between atoms and with which type of atomic orbital