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Multiple Bonds A Sigma And PI Bonding

In chemistry, a sigma bond (? bond) is a type of chemical bond that is formed between two atoms when the pair of electrons in the bond is shared equally between them.

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Video Transcript

So now that we've learned the hybridization of S P and D orbital's for molecules to make bonds, we can go back to a couple of examples to understand how Sigma and pi bonds for and so single bonding, which is designated by this great character, is essentially a head on bond. And so what happens is, if you have some kind of orbital, for example, and s Orbital and another ask for brutal thes or roles can overlap in such a way that you have a new orbital. And so, for a single bonds to occur, you need an aural that is aligned directly along and access for the overalls to overlap. And so an example of this is if you had 200 Jin's. If you overlap the oneness orbital's, you can have a new bonding orbital. And when we go into molecular orbital theory, this will make a bit more sense. But essentially for a single bond, you combine two atomic orbital's to make a new orbital, and pie bonding is essentially a Sigma bond, plus a pie bond. And so, uh, this is often considered a double bond or a triple bond, where atrial wand is simply to pie plus one sigma. Let me just use the Greek symbols services. Essentially, Dubai was once in my while. A pie bond is one pie plus one single, and for a pie bond to occur, you need to have a signal interaction on a pie interaction. And so, for example, um, specifically for your pi bon, you can have a case where you have to be orbital's, and so you have an area of anti bonding and an area bonding. And so if we combine these or rolls together, you get a new orbital bombing and a new orbital of anti bonding. And so these do not occur on the access, but actually outside of access. And so this is how you would create a pi bon, and you can also do something similar, um, with the triple ones and so you can have de orbital's or to be orbital's overlap each other. And so, if you're atomic, orbital's are lined up so that you can have bone overlap or, in other words, the same symmetry. You can have an overlap between the orbital's and so you can create regions of bonding as well as anti bonding and So in this case, you would have two pies in this case you and have a single high. And this is simply a sigma. And let's just draw a reference access to make this bit more clear. Mom. So again, this goes on access, and this is away from the access. And so when we talk about sigma and pi bonding, we'll be talking about the use of pie orbital's as well as hybridized orbital's. And so, for our first example, let's look at how bonding occurs in a theme. So I think, is simply two carbons, double bonded that are saturated with hydrogen. And so, um, in this case, we can see that we have a pie bond because we have a double bond, as well as a couple of single bonds between the hydrogen and the carbon, as well as the carbon between the carbon. And so if we just draw the bonding orbital's. We know that in this case, being carbons, RSP to hybridized and the age is actually do not have orbital higher ization because it only has one orbital, and so they simply are just as orbital's that are being used to make bonds and So if we draw these out, we know that we have orbital's that will need to use to make bombs. And so let's recall that for SB two. If we look at the energy diagram, that means we have one pie orbital and three SP two orbital's. And so let's distinguish the SP twos with GPS. So let's say at the black is S P two and these blue ones are the pie orbital's and let's also draw the orbital's for hydrogen. And so this is simply just and s orbital. Let's actually make this different color, so we know that thes belongs in the hydrogen. And so if we draw the electrons in, so we have one from the hydrogen and carbon will use four of its feelings. Electrons make bonds, and so these black ones RSP, too. And these blue ones are these pie orbital's. And so the reason why we see the observed bonding is because we have a signal bond because of this head on interaction. And so this is a long and access and we also have pie bonding because we have an overlap between the pie orbital's as shown here, and so this is the pie. And so when we have orbital's specifically the P atomic orbital, these types of horribles allow pie bonding, whereas for hybrids, orbital's and as orbital's, those are typically reserved for sigma bonding. And so, in this case, we see that there is a difference between the Sigma Pi again, mainly because of where these bonds are located, with respect to some kind of central access running along the molecule. And so to understand whether a certain Adam has a certain type of authorization to make bonds, you simply just need to look at the presence, UH, multi bonds, which will indicate that it has an SP two foreign SP hybridized orbital's. And another thing to note is that if you have a hetero atom so something that's not hydrogen but some kind of other element. Usually when those are bonded to an SP two, they will also have an SP two configuration, and so we'll see a couple of examples of those bit later. And so this is one example of how we can understand sigma and pi bonding by using our knowledge of hybridization. And so let's look at another example where we have carbon monoxide so carbon monoxide is he Triple Wando and we also have these lone parent. And so in this case, we have sp hybridization because we need to have to pee orbital's to make the pie bonds and the rest can be single bonds. And so we recall the energy diagram. BP Orbital's are located here, and the S P or rules are located here. And so in this case we can have P or roles that can participate in pipe bombing. And so if we draw us out, we know that there is a single bonding occurring between these two atoms as well as pipe on. And so all again, draw this in a different color. And again for thes models, I'm Onley, including the bonding orbital's. But it's also important to keep in mind that we also have anti bonding orbital's around as well. And so in this case, the lone pairs are going to occupy the SP. However, eyes Orbital's, the single bonds will use the SB and the pie bonds will be using the B or rules. And so here we can see that again we have single bombing using the SP hybridized. The lone pairs are located in the S P and thes pi bonds. Why are you using BP Atomic, Orbital's and services? Why we have a triple bond? Because we have one sigma and we have two pi bonds located around the Cinnabon. And so again, this is another way. Thio understand how atomic orbital's can overlap Thio make Sigma and pi bombs.