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because Adams have a nucleus and can have electrons occupy multiple energy levels in different atomic orbital's. We can define an atomic radio, and an atomic radio is defined as the distance between the center of the nucleus to the electrons in the outermost energy shell. And so, for example, let's say you have some nucleus and you have a bunch of electrons around the nucleus. And so the atomic radio would simply be three distance from the center point to the outermost electron has shown here. And to calculate the atomic radius of some items, you can actually just take the distance between the nuclear of two atoms. So, for example, let's say burning on then you could divide that by two to get the atomic radio, Um, and so that's one way to figure it out experimentally on. So we can actually I understand how the atomic radi I changes, depending on the number of feelings electrons on the periodic table. And so when you look at the periodic table, you'll notice that the atomic radio decreases from left to right. And so if we go down a period, the atomic Brady, I decreases and the reason why that is the case is because as you move from left to right, you have an increasing number of protons, and the more protons that you have, the greater the nuclear charge is on the electrons in the atom. And so if you have a stronger force from the protons in the nucleus pulling on the electrons, this will actually move the electrons closer to the nucleus and thus make the radi I smaller on DSO. That's the trend that we see going across the period, so from that's right, and as you go down a group, the atomic radio increases. And this makes sense because as you have electrons occupying higher and higher energy levels, this means that the electrons from the previous energy levels so electrons from the lower energy atomic orbital's have already been filled. And so if you keep stacking electrons on the atom, that will only mean that the atomic Grady I will get bigger on DSO. That's the general trend that we see in groups, and it's also important to note that the atomic radio is very different from the Ionic radio and so, um, if you have some kind of neutral atom and Let's say this is the radio. If you take away an electron, this means that you are oxidizing the atom. And so there's actually results in a small kayak. And so generally one and Adam produces the cat eye on the Ionic Greedy. I will decrease with respect Thio the neutral version and conversely, when you add an electron to the item, the Ionic radio increases. And so, um, this is something important to know just because, uh, to some extent the nuclear charge will mainly dominate thesis eyes of the atomic radia. But once we compare thes neutral species to the charge species, the addition and the removal of an electron actually plays a significant role in the ionic radio size as well. And so generally, if we specifically look at this part of the periodic table, the ionic size generally decreases. And so that means that the plus one charged species will typically have a greater bionic radio than the plastic species, because less electrons are being rude. And so if we look in this section, the ionic size increases. And so, for example, if we have some generic and ion the ones that are a greater magnitude in charge will be bigger than those that are not charged as much. And so this is kind of the general trend that we see for Ionic radio. And so now that we've talked about the trends for the radio of atoms and ions, let's go into a couple of examples. So let's say that we need to break thesis eyes. Listen to the radio from smallest to largest. Let's do a couple of exam eso. Let's say for the first part, we want to rank. So, yeah, we're video with them potassium and sodium. So first, we need to locate these on the periodic table and then from there, use our trends too. Give a prediction of, uh, sorry. Roswell is two largest along. So will be using the periodic table and our understanding of these trends. Thio rank the size. Um, and so we know that sodium is here, so I don't see is this, um, different color? So you know that sodium is here. Your video is here with the end is here calcium and season. So we're basically focusing on the specific group and so we can see that um, we're comparing Thies again. Any group And so we know that the atomic radio increases in size brown top to bottom and so we can organize this So it iss lithium, which is the smallest radi. I then sodium potassium your video on, then sees it. And so this would be your final ranking for this particular problem. So for the next set, let's say that we need to break the sizes for Maureen or on carbon with the, um and hydrogen. So first lot spirit, where these are on the parent tool. And then from there we can record So in a foreign is here. More on is here. Corbyn is here. What? Well, carbon is here. Lithium is here in Hadron is here. So in this case, we have elements that are sort of cluster together, but not really. But we can still use our trends too. Figure out which radio are smaller than the other. And so here we can see The 100 is in the first energy level. And so right off the bat you know that this must be the smallest one. Sorry. So you know, the hydrogen should be the smallest one. And then now we are comparing the radio and in period. And so we see And we know that according to our trends, theater, Tomic radio decreases along the period. And so that means that lithium actually has the greatest size. And so we can put that on the extreme end and then followed by Boron, Carbon and Floren. Um And so we know this because the Floren has the greatest number of protons. And so the addition of these protons are much more significant than the addition electrons in this case. And so if you have more protons, that means there is a greater pull on the electrons. And so that means that the atomic radio is smaller. And so, yeah, the more protons that you have in your nucleus, the greater the force and so the small, earthy atomic radio. And so because of that, we can rank these items in this fashion. So for our next bro, let's say that we need Thio. Rank the radio off with them magnesium aluminum through me. And so lithium is located here. Magnesium is here. Aluminum is here, Romanian is here and business is here. And so the easiest way to break this is by energy levels first And so we know that Libya must be the smallest because it is in the lowest energy level to and we know on the extreme end, we have this myth on the other side, which is unequal six. And then from there we know that Rabin must be smaller than bismuth because it is at the energy before and now we can compare the magnesium and the aluminum atomic radio. And so we know that the number of protons heavily influences the size of the atomic radio when you're comparing elements in a period and so we can see that aluminum has a larger number of protons than magnesium. And so that means that aluminum must have a smaller radio Acton magnesium. And so we can put aluminum here can by reason here. And so this would be your final ranking. Um, for this group off elements. So for the next problem will be comparing the biotic radi I, uh, flippy, um magnesium and blue. So, like before we've said that depending on the number off electrons that are lost for thes cantons, that means that the more electrons lost means that the smaller the Ionic radio will be and so we can see that aluminum is missing three electrons. Magnesium is missing due and lithium is missing one and service needs that lithium has the largest autonomy free time called by a magnesium and aluminum. And it's important to note that this is true even when the magnesium and aluminum are on different energy levels, mainly because the loss of the electrons means that the protons have a stronger pull on the remaining electrons. And so that is the reason why thes cantons can get really small, innit? Ionic Radia, um, and services how you would rank thesis eyes of the is ionic species. And so, for our next problem will be comparing the sizes of Maureen so fluoride id id bromide. And quite. And so in this case, we are comparing the bionic radio in a group. And I'm sorry, this is Lorene, and we know that when you go down a group because you are increasing in energy level, this means that there are simply more electrons occupying more shells, and so that contributes to the size of the Ionic radio. And so, for this case, we know that Florian must be the smallest, followed by chlorine Yeah, provide on the So we know that Florida is the smallest, followed by chloride bromide and then items. And so this is how you would rank thes groups. Uh, more specifically, he is, you know, and for our last problem, let's say that we are comparing the radio between the oxide all ride neon, the sodium counter on and the magnesium time. And so in this case, all of these species are eso Elektronik, meaning that they have the same number of electrons. But the only difference is that the number of protons are different. And so we know from our previous rules that if you have an in on this is typically, um greater in size, which makes sense because electrons are occupying more off the shelf and with more electrons. This means that the effective nuclear charge is weaker. And so this results in a greater on a radio and so we can put the oxide on the far side as well as for and for Karan's. We know that if we have less electrons, then that means the proton has a stronger force on the electrons in the atom. And so this results in a smaller out of Grady I and so we can find these on the extreme end where the higher charge species will yield a smaller Alec radio. That's enough. We just have me on, um and so this will be your final answer for these groups of moments and specifically the Ionic versions. Um, and in this particular case, a set of isil Elektronik species.