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So before going into some more Trans and the periodic table, well, first, talk about something called the ionization energy. And so the ionization energy is defined as the energy that it takes to remove an electron from an atom. Mm hmm. And so this can be demonstrated by very generic equation where we have some kind of Adam in the gas phase and energy is being inputted to make this Adam a carry on and, as a result, will produce a free electron from this process. And so ionization energy has a couple of trends on the periodic table. But essentially, you just need to know that generally, when you have an Adam that generally makes cantons thes tend to have low organization energies. Which makes sense because if Adams of this kind typically lose electrons to make compounds that it is pretty easy for those items, too. Lose electrons. And so it does not take a lot of energy to do that. And so, conversely, if you have atoms that typically make an ions thes, tend to have higher organization energies because they don't want to lose electrons, they actually want to gain electrons to achieve the noble gas configuration. And so examples of both include following so recounts. We typically think of Adam's leg. So yeah, and magnesium, which would create cantons and so so they would make it any. Plus magnesium would make me to bus and generously for any ons for things like oxygen and foreign. These tend to create and islands, and so it takes more energy to make thes Adams lose electrons. Because thes Adams actually want to gain electrons to achieve the noble Gas corporation push. We'll talk a bit more about later. But essentially, um, in terms of ionization energy, we can actually predict, um, the relative energies, depending on whether or not the atom will likely make an anti on or a carry on. And in the case of the canyon, we can predict when we see the largest bike in the ionization energy. And so this is best done intruded by a specific example. And so let's say that we're trying to understand the organization energies for magnesium, and so magnesium has an electron configuration of one s two thio us too. Two p a six and three s to. And so there are two valence electrons in the capital. And so magnesium has a couple of different organization energies, specifically a 1st, 2nd and 3rd and so on. And so we can slowly move an electron from each one to make a kind of and so to make G plus, we need thio remove an electron from the S orbital and so the electron configuration would be want us to to us too. Two p six and through this one. And we can also continue reading an electron. And so this would be the second organization energy. And so this would be one us too. Thio too. Two p 63 ass here and then we can do another organization. So this is the third organization to make entry three plus. And so this would be want us to to us to and to be five. And so then this is the first, 2nd and 3rd and so you can see that a some point we lose all of the valence electrons in the atomic orbital that we previously occupied. And then electrons begin to be removed from the next energy level and the next highest energy atomic orbital. And so we can see that this is where he jumped and organization energy is likely to occur because we see that at this point we start thio break thesis ability of the complete shell that we have from the SNP. And so if we look at magnesium two plus, we see that this is actually the noble gas configuration for neon. And so this is actually very stable because we have a complete octet, which is to from the S orbital and six friendly P orbital. And so if you break that stability, that's when it requires a lot of energy to remove electrons. And if you look here, we see that we still have valence electrons in the S orbital. And so that means that even if you lose electrons here, this actually doesn't break the stability that much. Um, in fact, the magnesium actually wants to lose thes electrons again to gain the noble gas configuration that we have for the second ionization energy. And so depending on the charge of the countdown, we can actually predict when we should predict a jump and ionization energy, mainly because of the breaking of the stability of the arms. So before going into the practice problems, I wanted to briefly mentioned the periodic trends for organization energy. And so if we go from left to right, we typically see the organization energy increase. And the main reason behind that is because as you go along, the period you're elements have an increasing number of protons. And so if you have more protons in your nucleus, that means that the protons altogether have a stronger poll on the electrons, especially those in the violence bombshell. And so that means that because of the stronger pull, it is much harder to remove an electron from the valence shell. And so that is why we see an increase in ionization energy going from left to right any period. And when you go down a group, we typically see a decrease in the eyes Asian energy. And this is mainly because, as you increase the energy levels, you have more electrons in your Adam. And so the effective nuclear charge that those electrons experience is actually ah, lot lower. And so it tastes plus energy to remove the electron from the outermost shop. And so because of that, we typically see a decrease in physician energy as you go down a period And so for our first problem, let's say that we have a variety, uh, different electronic federations, and you need to figure out which one has the largest first ionization energy. So let's say we have one. Us too, to us too. Two p six three us too. And me either for one Adam. And for another, Adam, we have one. Us too. Do you ask too? Two P six and three s tube. And for our last Adam, we have one as to to us too. Two pieces. And so according to the things that we know about organization energy, we know that, um usually for ionization energy, it is lower when we're trying to make a carry on or were trying. Thio achieved the noble gas configuration. And in the cases where we have to break the noble gas in variation, this is when we'll see a high energy required to move an electron from the atom. And so here we see, there are two atoms that have complete shells, and so too has completely filled the Islamic orbital. And three has completely filthy P atomic orbital. But for one, we only have a partially filled P and so it shouldn't take a lot of energy to remove an electron here, and so we can rule out that this does not have the largest first ionization energy. So now, if we compare it to in three, we see that for to you would be removing an electron from the three s orbital, and for three you'll be removing an electron from the two peaks. And so, for this problem, we know that our answer must be three, because this Adam already has a noble gas configuration, while two on Lee has a filled orbital, and so that is pretty stable. But it is not the noble gas configuration. And so we can assume that the ionization energy would be higher in the case for Adam three. And so that would be our final answer. And for our next problem, let's say that we need to rank from smallest. It's the highest organization energy, and we are given a list of different atoms to rank. And so let's say we are given Leon, Maureen, carbon, boron and silicon, and we need to figure out which one has the greatest organization energy. So in terms of ionization energy, we know that it is much easier to remove an electron for items that are further down the group, mainly because there are already a lot of electrons and protons don't have a great force. Thio pull onto the valence electrons, and so it is much easier to remove an electron in that specific case. And in terms of the period, usually for an ions, these will have a greater organization, energy and the further right you go the higher OBE and typically when you look at the case of cantons, um, usually this much easier Thio roof an electron if it can create a highly charged ion species. And so we compare these, we can see that neon must have the largest organization energy because it is a noble gas. And so we know that this must be at the far end of the ionization energy. And as for the smallest ionization energy, we can predict that silicon is lowest out of the ones that we have, because this is in another energy level. And so this would be the other extreme at And so now we need to compare the flooring, carbon and boron. And so we know that the ization energy increases from left to right, and so we can order these accordingly. So that means we have Lorene and Carmen on boron according to the periodic table. And so this would be your final ranking, not from small. So largest and again there is in why the ionization energy increases from left to right is because, as you're closer to the noble gas, you are much closer to achieving the noble gas in federation. And so if you lose an electron, it because much more unstable because, um, you are moving further away from the noble gas configuration, which is very stable to achieve. And so, yeah, this would be your final answer. And for our next problem, let's say that you want to figure out where we expect the highest increase in organization energy for magnesium, aluminum and sleep. So if you remember your question, we'll just write biggest jump lionization. And so, for our first problem, or at least for all the problems, we need to consider the fact that all of these will create a can on with a specific charge. And so once we remove electrons, um, to make these even more highly charged species. That's when we see the highest peak in the organization energies. And so we know that magnesium can make magnesium two plus to achieve the normal gas configuration of neon. And so that means that we see the biggest jump for our electron in TP six. And so this would be after the second organization. And after aluminum, we know that aluminum can make a three plus guy on. And so if we look at aluminum, if we move three electrons, we obtain the noble gas configuration, specifically neon. And so we know that the spike happens after the third ionization energy because that's when you start to remove electrons from the to P orbital. And lastly for Silicon Silicon can make a four plus count on. And so, using the same reasoning as before, we know that if we removed for electrons, we can get the noble gas configuration specifically neon, and so we know that be peak in ionization entity must be after the fourth organization, and so these would be your final answers to this problem. And so, for our last problem, let's say that we need to determine the elements that have ionization energies between lithium and your video and gallium and roaming. So almonds with musician between these two ends and so ionization energy, um, sort of trends on the periodic table. Um, but in very specific groups, um and so it's important to understand that usually when you compare organization energies, um, it is most predictable when you compare elements in a single group or a single period. Because there are some cases where the ionization energies don't trend when you look at a whole block by itself. And so the best way to do this in this case is to just pick the element in between each and so we know that lithium is here, everybody in his here. And so that means that the elements in between lithium and relative have an ionization energy between these two ends. And so for this problem, it would just be sodium and potassium. And as for the next problem, we have gallium and roaming, And so using the same reasoning as before, we know that along a period we have a consistent trend in terms of organization energy and so ionization energy increases from Malta, right? And so in this case, we know that uranium yes s Liam, we'll have ionization energies between these extreme