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What is the pH of a buffer when the concentrations of both buffer components (the weak acid and its conjugate base) are equal? What happens to the pH when the buffer contains more of the weak acid than the conjugate base? More of the conjugate base than the weak acid?
What is kinetic energy? What is potential energy? List some examples of each.
What is a buffer? How does a buffer work? How does it neutralize added acid? Added base?
What is energy? What is work? List some examples of each.
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so chemical energy is energy stored in bonds between Adams or between molecules, and energy is required to break bonds, and energy is released upon the information of bonds. So, like the video and insurance again, molecules have energy associated with the bonds between each pair of atoms, which is described as potential energy. Onda Central energy is related. Thio mass and distance So, for example, if you have some kind of ball being held up by some distance, um, the ball has potential energy because it has a mess and can basically fall a sir in distance to the ground. And so we can think of this like bonds as well. And as an example, let's say we're talking about water, so water is oxygen bonded to two hydrogen atoms, and so the bond energy between the oxygen and the hydrogen can be thought of as potential energy. So if you wanted to break these bonds, we actually need to input energy thio. Remove thes Adams. And so if we think about the Converse example eso for creating water, which can be thought of as hydrogen gas reacting with oxygen gas to create water, we're forming thes new bonds by breaking the bonds between the hydrogen for hydrogen gas and oxygen for auction gas to create thes new bonds, which I might as well drive here. And so here. There is an exchange of energy in the sense that you need energy to break bonds, and then, from there we can release energy through the formation of bonds. And whenever you're breaking and forming new bonds, this does not necessarily mean that you need to break and form bonds between atoms. You can also do this between molecules, which are called face changes. Until let's say you have ice on DSO. You can think of ice thes water molecules blocked in position in a crystal lattice. So so you demonstrate that let's just tropical examples. So I was actually has a budget of polymorphous what you don't really need to know. But that's just one thing to keep in mind, so this could be a structure of water. It's not a definite structure. Let's say you have some kind of ice structure as shown here. Let's say this is ice and you input heat. So, for example, let's say you have like a ice cube from your freezer section and you put on the table at room temperature. When you do that, you noticed that the ice is starting to melt into water, and when that is happening, you're actually seeing the breaking of these weak bonds between the water molecules. And so you're breaking these bonds shown here, which we'll talk about a bit later. Or we're talking about the different types of bonds that you could have between molecules on DSO. When this happens, you break bonds between the water molecules, and so now you have these war molecules that aren't really in a crystallized anymore, and they're kind of just floating around. And so this doesn't mean that there are no weak interactions between the water molecules in the liquid. But they're definitely different when you're comparing the bonds between the water molecules and ice versus in a liquid, and so that's also another form of an exchange of energy. And so when we talk about chemical energy, we know that all molecules have some form of energy, and some bonds in molecules are more reactive because the bonds week and or the possibility of forming a different bond is much more stable, like in the case of the formation of water on DSO, chemical energy can be used to create other forms of useful energy and our very applicable to our lives. So one example is natural gas on DSO. We need natural gas to power a lot of the cars that we have today specifically for combustion fuel cars and we also use natural gas to heat our homes and natural gas is actually a form of fuel and has chemical energy stored in it. And so when you use the gas, the energy is released and it can make your car move, it can hit your house. And so that's one important use fuels and specifically chemical energy. Another one that you might be familiar with is the fat in our bodies, and the fact acts as an energy reservoir, so it helps keep us alive. And these are usually long chains of hydrocarbons. Eso you can imagine if this is like a tale of harder carbon. You can imagine that there are along repeating units of this and we'll talk a bit more about that while we're on the Polaroid section. But essentially you have these very long trains off carbon atoms bonded to each other, which are also wanted to hydrogen atoms on DSO. That's one way for our bodies to store extra energy that we don't use immediately. And Leslie. More recently, scientists have been looking at things like alternative fuel cells to natural gas such as hydrogen gas and hydrogen peroxide. And we can use these as clean fuel, which means that when you burn them, you don't produce carbon dioxide. But you actually produce water, um, in other side products that contribute to greenhouse gasses. And so it's cool is that you can use this fuel to convert chemical energy into electrical energy. Um, and so chemical energy is a really important concept, and it actually is very useful in our everyday lives, as well as dealing with issues that we are experiencing with now, especially with climate change and things like that. On DSO, it's really important to understand the relevance, uh, understanding thes different topics with our daily lot
Periodic Table properties