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University of Kentucky
Explain how the sum of heat and work can be a state function, even though heat and work are themselves not state functions.
What is energy? What is work? List some examples of each.
If two objects, A and B, of different temperature come into direct contact, what is the relationship between the heat lost by one object and the heat gained by the other? What is the relationship between the temperature changes of the two objects? (Assume that the two objects do not lose any heat to anything else.)
What is the pH of a buffer when the concentrations of both buffer components (the weak acid and its conjugate base) are equal? What happens to the pH when the buffer contains more of the weak acid than the conjugate base? More of the conjugate base than the weak acid?
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so for thermodynamics will be generally talking about energy, how energy is stored, how energy is transferred, Um, as well as different ways for us to quantify Children forms of energy and experiments. Um and so first, we'll be talking about chemical energy on DSO the bonds between Adams and a molecule, as well as bonds between molecules, all store energy and when bonds are broken, energy is released and when bonds are formed, energy is stored. So chemical energy is useful in helping us understand the relationship between energy and face changes, as well as a variety of concepts under thermodynamic. And so the first law of thermodynamics states that energy can neither be created or destroyed. And to understand the exchange of energy, we define a system and a surrounding, and the ways in which you can transfer energy on between both and the exchange of heat between a system and its surrounding can be described using the terms exo, thermic and anna thermic. So some reactions require an input in heat to proceed for while others release heat upon the information of certain products. On DSO understanding, the differences between both can help us better understand certain characteristics classes of reactions such as decomposition, reactions and combustion reactions just to name a few. So in thermodynamics, we also introduced a variety of important physical quantities that can be classified as either a state or a path function. So a physical quantity that describes the conditions of a single system. So something like temperature like volume and so on is considered a state function. A physical quantity that does not describe a system but actually involves some kind of transfer. Um, from one system to another is actually considered a path function. So something like heat and work gasses are capable of compressing and expanding and can subsequently do work on a system. Um, since work is a function of pressure and volume, while liquids and solids have a constant volume and therefore cannot to PV work and using our definitions of systems and turnings, we can better understand pressure volume work and how our systems and surroundings change in those process. Next to the chemical energy stored in bonds can be quantified by a bond. It will be which is the amount of energy needed to break bonds between Adams and in certain applications we can use bond and lapis to approximate the entropy of some reactions. The entropy of formation can be written for molecules using the stable, elemental forms off the atom, which make up a molecule under standard conditions or, in other words, at one atmosphere and 298 k. And the entropy of formation is different from a chemical reactions, but is useful for helping us obtain a specific standard and will be information value for a variety of molecules using houses law. And since we can obtain the entropy information for a variety of molecules, we can use this information to predict the entropy of various factions by subtracting the total NLP formation of the reactant from the total entropy operation from the product. And this is also useful in predicting whether or not a reaction is X a thermic or another. So because entropy is a state function we can actually use has this law to determine the entropy of a specific reaction given the NLP a reaction for other known chemical reaction. So this is useful for creating the MP off certain reactions. If there is an easier way to determine the entropy by observing other reactions that are easier to do. For instance, molecules have chemical energy, the molecule as well as between molecules. Energy can be inputted into these substances, which can respond either by changing phases or by changing temperature and experimentally. This is very useful for determining the specific heat and heat capacity of unknown substances. Uh, if you are given the mass of the substance, as well as the temperature change and heat that is being inputted into the system and experimentally, we can determine the specific heat of substances under constant pressure and causing volume commission. So, under constant pressure conditions, we can relate the heat exchange with the change in NLP. And alternatively, we can also determine thes specific heat under constant lying conditions where keep exchange is related to the change in the internal energy of a system. And one real life application of Kalorama Tree is actually determining the calorie content of food. So we can determine the heat released from the combustion of a substance using bomb Kalorama tree, which can be used to determine the apple p of combustion and subsequently the fuel value
Periodic Table properties