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(I) A 7150-kg railroad car travels alone on a level frictionless track with a constant speed of 15.0 m/s. A 3350-kg load, initially at rest, is dropped onto the car. What will be the car's new speed?
I) How much tension must a rope withstand if it is used to accelerate a 1210-kg car horizontally along a frictionless surface at 1.20 m/s$^2$ ?
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Welcome to the next unit in physics, one of three where we will be talking about atomic physics by atomic physics. What I mean is we're going to be looking at Adams and how they act based on the principles that we've learned so far. We know that there's some kind of nucleus and there's this electron and the electron somehow attached to the nucleus. This is all basic kind of first year chemistry sort of stuff. Um, but we're gonna look a little closer about how this works from a physics perspective, What does it all mean? And why do electrons have these specific energy levels? We've already learned about the idea of quantity ization, and we've also seen that atoms of different gasses emit light and absorb light, indiscreet at discrete wavelength. So looking at intensity versus wavelength, we get these sharp peaks here. It's not a continuous spectrum, and we believe this idea comes from this quantity ization issue. And so what the world really needed was a model for Adams that combined quantity ization with what we knew. We had long ago discovered electrons, or at least about 30 40 50 years ago, before we had figured out quantity, ization and these sorts of effects. And then also on the way, we found that there was a nucleus. Once we have found electrons that have been all sorts of models of the atom that involved Hey, maybe there's negative particles inside this Adam. Maybe it's all negative. Maybe it's all positive. Maybe it's a mixture of the thing throughout, and then we figured out No, there's a nucleus and the nucleus is positive and the negative stuff is orbiting around it. On DSO, we had all this progression of concepts to be able to come up with, Ah, legitimate model of how atoms work. And finally, at the beginning of the 19 hundreds, they were able to start doing that. Now, unfortunately, um, really good models of the atom are really complex. Fortunately for us, there are some simple models of the hydrogen atom that are within our grasp, and so that's what we're going to be looking at. Our models of the hydrogen atom, um, larger atoms are much more complex to deal with. Their energy levels are very challenging. And while you can look at them from an empirical standpoint, doing it from a theoretical standpoint is is well beyond our mathematical ability. Hear in introductory physics, and that's fine. We can learn all the principles we need to learn just by looking at hydrogen. So a lot of this unit is going to be looking at hydrogen and what we can learn from hydrogen about general rules that govern Adams.
Condensed Matter Physics