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A 4.1 17-g impure sample of glucose ( $\mathrm{C}_{6} \mathrm{H}_{12} \mathrm{O}_{6}$ ) was burned in a constant-volume calorimeter having a heat capacity of $19.65 \mathrm{kJ} /^{\circ} \mathrm{C}$. If the rise in temperature is $3.134^{\circ} \mathrm{C},$ calculate the percent by mass of the glucose in the sample. Assume that the impurities are unaffected by the combustion process. See Appendix 3 for thermodynamic data.

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Chemistry 101

Chapter 6

Thermochemistry

Carleton College

University of Kentucky

Brown University

Lectures

05:27

In chemistry, a chemical reaction is a process that leads to the transformation of one set of chemical substances to another. Both reactants and products are involved in the chemical reactions.

06:42

In chemistry, energy is what is required to bring about a chemical reaction. The total energy of a system is the sum of the potential energy of its constituent particles and the kinetic energy of these particles. Chemical energy, also called bond energy, is the potential energy stored in the chemical bonds of a substance. Chemical energy is released when a bond is broken during chemical reactions.

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So in this question we have a combustion reaction of glucose, and it's occurs in a Keller murder. And we want to find the percent mass of glucose in the actual glucose sample. So we know that the first thing we have to do is we have to write the combustion reaction of glucose so that we can find how much heat is released. So you know for sure that it involves glucose and then all combustion reactions. We have oxygen, the reactant. We have liquid water. And so too in the products. So now we need to balance this. The first look to the carbon. If six on the left, you only have one on the right, so it's correct for that. Put it six. There. Now we have six. On both sites, we look to the hydrogen. There's 12 on the left. There's only two on the right. So we need to multiply this by six so that there is 12 on both sides. Now look at the oxygen. So on this side we have six 12. So we have 18 in total. And from here we have six from the glucose. So now we need this 02 to produce 12 molds of Artemis items. So this equation is balance. And so the only thing we need to do is put a six in front of the oxygen. So then we get the final balanced equation for the combustion of glucose is the following, so that is a combustion reactions. Now we need to actually relate this to heat, so we know that some amount of heat is given off by the combustion reaction, and that amount of heat is then absorbed by the calendar. So we confined how much sheet is released by finding these tell to each of the reaction, and we know that I could be found they taking the heat's informations the products and then subtracting the heats, information, the reactions. We know we can already get rid of oxygen because the heat's informations of all elements are zero. So now you look at the products. First, we have six moles of liquid water, and we know the heat information of water is negative. 285 0.8 killed joules per mole. Then we have six moles of CO two in the heats. Information of sea or two is 9300 and 93 0.5 kill jewels from all. The last thing we need to do is we need to subtract out the heat information for one mole of glucose and the heat information of glucose is negative. 1274.5 killer jewels that will give us the overall heat of the reaction on the molar basis. When you put all of that into the calculator, you'll get that the heat of the reaction is negative. 2000 801.3 kill jewels promote. So now we need to find how much heat is absorbed in the Calera meter. So we know that the killer murder has a heat pastie of 19.65 killed Jules Pretty re Celsius 0.65 Children's self, and we know that the change in temperature was a positive 3.134 So the only thing that we wanted you to find the heat absorbed is multiply those things together. So we have the geek past here and the change in temperature, which is a positive 3.134 If you can see the units will cancel out, you'll only get killer jewels left, and then you will see that the amount of heat absorbed by the Calera murder is 61.58 killed, Jules. So now we have two numbers and we need to relate them to each other. So we know that the amount of heat that is given off by the combustion reaction must equal the amount of heat that the Kellerman absorbs because he is always conserved enclosed system. So we know that that number is going to be 61.58 So that is how much heat is given off. But we also know that per every one mole of glucose that 2801.3 killed Jules Computer released. And we know that because this course points to one wall of the equation and there's only one more off close in the equation has shown at the very top. Now we need to relate this to Gramps, and we can do that by multiplying by the more mass of glucose, which happens to be around 180 grams. And that will give us how many grams of glucose were actually involved in the combustion reaction. When you multiply all of that together, you will get at 3.96 grams of glucose were reacted. The last step is we have to find the percentage of glucose. And we know that there was a four point 117 gram sample that included glucose. So if only three point, then six grams of that are actually going coast and the entire sample was 4.117 grams. We can just divide those multiplied by 100 to get the percentage of glucose within the sample. When you want to play that, you will get that the purity was 96.2 percent, and that is the final answer.

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