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. A complete series circuit consists of a 12.0 $\mathrm{V}$ battery, a 4.70$\Omega$ resistor, and a switch. The internal resistance of the battery is 0.30$\Omega .$ The switch is open. What does an ideal voltmeter read when placed (a) across the terminals of the battery, (b) across the resistor, (c) across the switch? (d) Repeat parts (a), (b), and (c) for the case when the switch is closed.

11.28 $\mathrm{V}$

Physics 102 Electricity and Magnetism

Chapter 19

Current, Resistance, and Direct-Current Circuit

Electric Charge and Electric Field

Gauss's Law

Electric Potential

Capacitance and Dielectrics

Current, Resistance, and Electromotive Force

Direct-Current Circuits

Electromagnetic Induction

Simon Fraser University

Hope College

University of Sheffield

Lectures

10:31

A capacitor is a passive two-terminal electrical component that stores electrical energy in an electric field. The effect of a capacitor is known as capacitance. The electrical charge stored in a capacitor is proportional to the potential difference between its terminals. A capacitor is defined as an electrical component that can store an electric charge. The effect of a capacitor is known as capacitance. The charge on a capacitor is directly proportional to the potential difference across its terminals. The unit of capacitance in the International System of Units (SI) is the farad (F), defined as one coulomb per volt. In electrical engineering, a common symbol for capacitance is the lowercase Greek letter "rho" (?). The capacitance of a capacitor is also expressed in farads.

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In physics, electric flux is a measure of the quantity of electric charge passing through a surface. It is used in the study of electromagnetic radiation. The SI unit of electric flux is the weber (symbol: Wb). The electric flux through a surface is calculated by dividing the electric charge passing through the surface by the area of the surface, and multiplying by the permittivity of free space (the permittivity of vacuum is used in the case of a vacuum). The electric flux through a closed surface is zero, by Gauss's law.

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So we have a circular that looked like this. We have a wounded source which also has internal assistance. Voltage sort gives you the whole date of 12 World and has an internal assistance of 0.30 home on. We have an external assistance off 4.70 room on. There is a switch which is open now for party. We want to find out what is the hold These differences a cross across the power source now because there is no current in this case. The whole day's difference across two points is a salon minus I r on because currently, zero. It's simply the IMF, which in this case history world, that is because there is no current. The boldest difference across these two points will simply be 12 old now for Part B. We want to find out the whole day's difference across the external sister. Now, in this case, there is no image and hence the boldest differences. Simply I R. But we don't have any current, and hence the world. This difference will be zero Alpher Patsy, you want to find out the world is difference across the switch now for Patsy you know that the total world ist along the loop must sometimes zero on now because there is a 12 old bull this difference across the battery, the voltage difference across thesis which must also be 12 old. I'll be it in a negative direction on that would make go all these different across the whole security, some up to zero. Now, for the second part this which is closed, we have the same our source with the internal resistance on we have the external resistance Ondas switch is closed which gives us 4.70 0130 home and for the world. Now that we have this for part, if we want to find out, the world is difference across the battery that we know is the m of minus I R. In this case, the IMF is 12 old and we need to find out the current first now because we have two resistance is here. The total resistance is simply there some because they're in Siri's on that 0.3 that's 4.7, which will give you 5.0 home. Hence current is vey by our, which is 12 old divided by five home which will give you two point for ampere. That was our thing. Now that you know this, it is very simple to use this formula. The office 12 world minus the current is 2.4 anti ampere modified by the resistance. Is there a 0.3? This gives us 11 point revolt now for Bobby. Okay? And we want to find out the resistance across the external resistor. Now, In this case, the voltage difference is simply I r Where are is the resistance off the external assistant external sister, That is simply the current 2.4 ampere multiplied by the assistant for 17 home which gives us 11.3 old age world. Sorry. Now that we have this, what is the world is difference across this fetch that is simply zero because there were no other. Because there is no assistance in between. This is simply the least bad off recently is resistance. There is no we, Emma. And there is no resistance, which makes the oldest difference simply zero

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