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(a) Estimate the mass of the luminous matter in the known universe, given there are $10^{11}$ galaxies, each containing $10^{11}$ stars of average mass 1.5 times that of our Sun. (b) How many protons (the most abundant nuclide) are there in this mass? (c) Estimate the total number of particles in the observable universe by multiplying the answer to (b) by two, since there is an electron for each proton, and then by $10^{9}$ , since there are far more particles ( such as photons and neutrinos) in space than in luminous matter.

a. $3 \times 10^{42} \mathrm{kg}$b. $2 \times 10^{79}$c. $4 \times 10^{88}$

Physics 103

Chapter 34

Frontiers of Physics

Wave Optics

Particle Physics

Cornell University

University of Sheffield

McMaster University

Lectures

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So the problem is too. Find approximate mass off our galaxy and we are given that the luminous matter salami call this luminous matter is this 10 to 11 times the mass of the sun. So what I mean is that there are roughly tend to the 11 stars whose average mass is 1.5 times the mass of the sun. So this is the luminous Mado. And then you're also stated in the problem that we have dark matter whose mass is 10 times the luminous matter, right? Good. So the total mass becomes the dark matter which I called him D m and the luminess matter. Now I plug in How much dark might I have, which is 10 times the luminous matter, plus the regular luminous matter. So the total mass is 11 times the luminous matter. So now I just plug in this relation and I obtain that 11 times 10 to the 11 times 1.5 times the mass of the sun. And we can refer to the text book for the mass of the Sun and tells us the mass of the sun Is this 1.99 into tented 30 kilograms. Just do a simple calculation, and this tells you that the mask off our galaxy is three times 10 to the 42 kilograms. That's a huge number.

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