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(a) Show that the pressure exerted by a fluid $P$ (in pascals) is given by $P=h d g,$ where $h$ is the column of the fluid in meters, $d$ is the density in $\mathrm{kg} / \mathrm{m}^{3},$ and $g$ is the acceleration due to gravity $\left(9.81 \mathrm{m} / \mathrm{s}^{2}\right)$ (Hint: See Appendix 2.) (b) The volume of an air bubble that starts at the bottom of a lake at $5.24^{\circ} \mathrm{C}$ increases by a factor of 6 as it rises to the surface of water where the temperature is $18.73^{\circ} \mathrm{C}$ and the air pressure is 0.973 atm. The density of the lake water is $1.02 \mathrm{g} / \mathrm{cm}^{3}$. Use the equation in (a) to determine the depth of the lake in meters.

a. Pressure $=$ length $\times$ density $\times$ acceleration $=\mathrm{hgd}=101,325 \mathrm{Pa}$ b. $0.060 \mathrm{m}$ depth

Chemistry 101

Chapter 5

Gases

Carleton College

University of Central Florida

University of Toronto

Lectures

05:03

In physics, a gas is one of the three major states of matter (the others being liquid and solid). A gas is a fluid that does not support tensile stress, meaning that it is compressible. The word gas is a neologism first used by the early 17th-century Flemish chemist J.B. van Helmont, based on the Greek word ("chaos"), the simplest of all the elemental forms of matter.

04:46

In physics, thermodynamics is the science of energy and its transformations. The three laws of thermodynamics state that energy can be exchanged between physical systems as heat and work; that the total energy of a system can be calculated by adding up all forms of energy in the system; that energy spontaneously flows from being localized to becoming dispersed, spread out, or uniform; and that the entropy of an isolated system not in equilibrium will tend to increase over time, approaching a maximum value at equilibrium.

03:06

Part a) What is the total …

03:11

Find the pressure due to t…

03:30

04:49

Consider the case of an ai…

01:51

(a) Calculate the absolute…

02:36

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