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Active transport is the process in which a substance is transferred from a region of lower concentration to one of higher concentration. This is a nonspontaneous process and must be coupled to a spontaneous process, such as the hydrolysis of ATP. The concentrations of $K^{+}$ ions in the blood plasma and in nerve cells are $15 \mathrm{m} M$ and $400 \mathrm{m} M,$ respectively $\left(1 \mathrm{m} M=1 \times 10^{-3} \mathrm{M}\right) .$ Use Equation (17.13) to calculate $\Delta G$ for the process at the physiological temperature of $37^{\circ} \mathrm{C}:$ $\mathrm{K}^{+}(15 \mathrm{m} M) \longrightarrow \mathrm{K}^{+}(400 \mathrm{m} M)$In this calculation, the $\Delta G^{\circ}$ term can be set to zero. What is the justification for this step?

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$$8. 5 \mathrm{kJ} / \mathrm{mol}$$

Chemistry 102

Chapter 17

Entropy, Free Energy, and Equilibrium

Thermodynamics

Carleton College

University of Central Florida

Rice University

University of Kentucky

Lectures

00:42

In thermodynamics, the zeroth law of thermodynamics states that if two systems are in thermal equilibrium with a third system, they are also in thermal equilibrium with each other.

01:47

A spontaneous process is one in which the total entropy of the universe increases. In a spontaneous process, the system will move from an ordered state to a disordered state, such as from ice to water, or from a solid to a gas. The concept of spontaneity was introduced by Rudolf Clausius in 1850.

03:16

Active transport is the pr…

01:10

03:07

The potassium-ion concentr…

cancer for discussion. Above here, we know Delta G Physical Tau Delta, Jeannot plus rt. Nature Law Kim Mhm. By putting values, we have zero plus 8.314 into 310 nature lock. Okay. Okay. 400 Milly months divided by 15 million more is equal to 8.5. Multiply 10 rest to the power tree Shoal. Permal Delta G is equal to 8.5 Killer Joel Turmoil.

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