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Although an incandescent lightbulbappears to shine with constant intensity, this is an artifact of theeye's persistence of vision. In fact, the intensity of a bulb's lightrises and falls with time due to the alternating current used inhousehold circuits. If you could perceive these oscillations, wouldyou see the light attain maximum brightness 60 or 120 times persecond? Explain.

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Physics 102 Electricity and Magnetism

Chapter 24

Alternating-Current Circuits

Current, Resistance, and Electromotive Force

Direct-Current Circuits

Electromagnetic Induction

Alternating Current

Cornell University

Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey

University of Michigan - Ann Arbor

Hope College

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in this question. We have a light bulb which has a current running prove it on that current is finishing at a frequency off 60 hurt. And then we're asked if that light bulb we will achieve its maximum brightness, uh, 60 times its second or 120 times a second. On explanation is the following. The current also dates as the following function. It's equal to the maximum current times this sign off some fees of each second. Ah, we have the following cycle off current through here is the maximum current. Here's mine is the maximum current and the period off ox elation goes as follows. It reaches the maximum correct, then the current reaches and minimal and only then it reaches that zero again. Zero in on the key violent matter to this point. On that point, no note the following the maximum current it's health was Richard twice. But in this first big, the current waas flowing in one direction say it was flowing to the right and in their own. On that valley, the current is flowing to the left. With both cases, the current's flowing with its maximum intensity and therefore the maximum brightness off that bulb is achieving twice on each cycle. As we have 60 cycles per second, we will have our light bulb posting 120 times per second. So the answer is 120 times. If you can't see these with his explanation, you can then remember the following the brightness off. That kind of lifeboat is due to the Joel Effect and the power that is consumed by the light bulb. Is it close to I squared times the resistance? Not exactly like that, because he's a disease and are a mess circuit. But you can use that expression to understand why the maximum happens twice on every cycle. And we can draw a graphic now off power times time before it was cool in times time. Note that the power is proportional to the square off the current. Then the graphic for the power will be like this. It is a full cycle off power. Note that a full cycle off power has two peaks, one at that instant off time and one at that instant off time. So he got lives off the direction of the current the power consumer that the peaks is the maximum possible. So we have maximum brightness here and maximum brightness here again two times at on each cycle, as we have 60 cycles per second. Well, you will then have one hundreds, 120 times where the light bulb achieves its maximum brightness.

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