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An oceanographic tracer. Nuclear weapons tests in the 1950 s and 1960 s released significant tritium ($_{ 1 }^{ 3 }{H},$ half-life 12.3 years) into the atmosphere. The tritium atoms were quickly bound into water molecules and rained out of the air, most of them ending up in the ocean. For any of this tritium-tagged water that sinks below the surface, the amount of time during which it has been isolated from the surface can be calculated by measuring the ratio of the decay product, $_{2}^{3} \mathrm{He},$ to the remaining tritium in the water. For example, if the ratio of $\frac{3}{2} \mathrm{He}$ to $_{1}^{3} \mathrm{H}$ in a sample of water is $1 : 1,$ the water has been below the surface for one half-life, or approximately 12 years. This method has provided oceanographers with a convenient way to trace the movements of subsurface currents in parts of the ocean. Suppose that in a particular sample of water, the ratio of $^{3} \mathrm{He}$ to $^{3} \mathrm{H}$ is 4.3 to $1.0 .$ How many years ago did this water sink below the surface?

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29.6 $\mathrm{y}$

Physics 103

Chapter 30

Nuclear and High-Energy Physics

Atomic Physics

Nuclear Physics

Particle Physics

Cornell University

Simon Fraser University

Hope College

Lectures

02:42

Atomic physics is the field of physics that studies atoms as an isolated system of electrons and an atomic nucleus. It is primarily concerned with the arrangement of electrons around the nucleus and the processes by which these arrangements change. The theory of quantum mechanics, a set of mathematical rules that describe the behaviour of matter and its interactions, provides a good model for the description of atomic structure and properties.

02:26

In physics, nuclear physics is the field of physics that studies the constituents and interactions of atomic nuclei. The most commonly known applications of nuclear physics are nuclear power generation and nuclear weapons technology, but the research has provided application in many fields, including those in nuclear medicine and magnetic resonance imaging, ion implantation in materials engineering, and radiocarbon dating in geology and archaeology.

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An oceanographic tracer. N…

01:40

$\textbf{An Oceanographic …

07:05

Nuclear weapons tests in t…

02:25

The half-life $\left(t_{1 …

03:26

Corals take up certain ele…

02:17

03:15

Biology In February 2010 …

03:04

One proposed proton decay …

01:18

Tritium dating. The $_{1}^…

So this question it introduces a way of Tracy Hauser. Water. It's a surface of the ocean is sinking into the product, and this is by smashing the ratio off here because Jason's a new clipper to the water. So surface water has tragedy has, says isotope of hydrogen, and it will eventually decay. And here, here in So this gives us a measurement of so furnishings, a helium to hydrogen ratio off the water. It tells us how long has passed sinks since the nuclear test in 19 fifties. And knowing that time and knowing the location of the water it house, it informs us off the movement off the ocean Current. Certainly this question and asks us in a simple was the rachel of helium to hydrogen? Is he known to? Your hydrogen is four point straight to what 100 years killed. It's this water sink below the surface. So you heard about that. Let's assume that's an initial hydrogen amount is and not off hydrogen. Then at a certain time. Its amount of hydrogen is not heard ish times each Jozy not too planete. This's just how deep in is exponentially, and the amount of Helier is so every scene. So this is initial lot of hundreds. This is hardship after such a top team. And the difference, I think, is what's the heat is coming from? So they're different because of apart become here and so here in equals initial amount of hydrogen mind us final one of hydrogen So is ino each types one minus e toothy active libretti. So when we measure the amount of helium to the amount of hydrogen what we have this we have this number divided by assist hunger which is were minus heat. Who's elective lender tea over. It was a natural act that he which if we simplify it is each other. Let that he minus one and right now it is 4.3. So with that, we can calculate the time. But we need to also know what Lambda kiss. And we know that the half life is approximately 12 years. So Linda is went you over 12 Coin? Yeah. Talk 0.3 years. Shit. So this 0.563 crew here isn't we use here? We don't. He equals, um oi for pretty three class fund divided by ah Lim PTA. So this is my final 0.3 over 0.563 per year. This's 30 years

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