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$\bullet$ A beam of electrons is accelerated from rest and then passes through a pair of identical thin slits that are 1.25 $\mathrm{nm}$ apart. You observe that the first double-slit interference dark fringe occurs at $\pm 18.0^{\circ}$ from the original direction of the beam when viewed on a distant screen. (a) Are these electrons relativistic? How do you know? (b) Through what potential difference were the electrons accelerated? focused on the tumor. The tissue absorbs the energy predominately via Compton interactions, so it is important to know how many Compton interactions occur and how many ionizations a single Compton electron produces. A linear accelerator used in radiation therapy produces x ray photons with an average energy of about 2 MeV, each of which impart 1 MeV to the Compton electrons. A typical tumor has $10^{8}$ cells/cm $^{3}$ and a full treatment may involve a dose of 70 Gy in 35 fractional exposures on different days. The gray (Gy) is a measure of the absorbed energy dose of radiation per unit mass of tissue, expressed in the units of $\mathrm{J} / \mathrm{kg}$ .

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2.52 $\mathrm{V}$

Physics 102 Electricity and Magnetism

Physics 103

Chapter 28

Photons, Electrons, and Atoms

Electromagnetic Waves

Atomic Physics

Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey

Simon Fraser University

Hope College

University of Winnipeg

Lectures

02:42

Atomic physics is the field of physics that studies atoms as an isolated system of electrons and an atomic nucleus. It is primarily concerned with the arrangement of electrons around the nucleus and the processes by which these arrangements change. The theory of quantum mechanics, a set of mathematical rules that describe the behaviour of matter and its interactions, provides a good model for the description of atomic structure and properties.

03:50

In atomic physics, the Rutherford-Bohr model or Bohr model or Bohr model of the atom was first proposed by Niels Bohr in 1913. It was the first quantum theory of the atomic structure, applying the principles of quantum mechanics to the hydrogen atom. The Rutherford-Bohr model is a planetary model in which the electron is assumed to revolve around the nucleus in circular orbits. The Rutherford-Bohr model of the atom was based on Max Planck's quantum theory of radiation, which explained the spectrum of blackbody radiation, and Albert Einstein's theory of the photoelectric effect, which explained the origin of the spectrum of line emission from atoms. The Bohr model of the atom was the first to explain the discrete spectrum of hydrogen and how the spectral lines of the hydrogen atom were split into multiple spectral lines in a phenomenon called the fine structure. It introduced the Bohr radius and the concept of quantum levels to explain the discrete nature of the spectrum of the hydrogen atom. The Bohr model of the atom had a significant influence on the development of quantum mechanics, and was instrumental in the development and validation of quantum mechanics.

18:03

Consider Compton scatterin…

22:43

03:58

In the Compton effect, we …

06:35

43.58. Pion Radiation Ther…

04:34

A beam of gamma rays has a…

07:02

A beam of 40-eV electrons …

All right, So the first on fringe due to diffraction is given by de signed data equals Lambda over too. So if we solve this for Lambda, we get land is equal to two D sign data. And we can combine this with the broccoli relation which says that land is equal to H O ver p too. Right? Sooty sign data equals h overpay. And he was envy. So we substitute that in a swell and solved for V. The V is equal to H over m times two d sign data. So now it's just a matter of plugging everything in Dee was 1.25 and animators and the angle was 18 degrees. Yeah, look. And this comes out to 9.42 times 10 to the five meters per second. And this is much, much smaller than the speed of light. So this is safely non relativistic in Part VII were asked what potential would be needed, Tio, um, accelerated electrons to this velocity. So, um, the energy needed is 1/2 and v squared, and this would be the energy in jewels. So if we want to convert, it'll be more convenient in this case to convert evey. So it's right this way as M V squared over two and we divide by the electron charge a cz well to convert this into TV out. And this comes out too 2.5 to electron volts and then, by definition of an electron noble. This means that the voltage that thie electrons would have to get accelerated through is 2.52 volts.

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