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$\bullet$ Light inside the eye. The vitreous humor, a transparent, gelatinous fluid that fills most of the eyeball, has an index of refraction of 1.34 . Visible light ranges in wavelength from400 $\mathrm{nm}$ (violet) to $700 \mathrm{nm}(\mathrm{red}),$ as measured in air. This light travels through the vitreous humor and strikes the rods and cones at the surface of the retina. What are the ranges of (a) the wavelength, (b) the frequency, and (c) the speed of the light just as it approaches the retina within the vitreous humor?

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a) 298.5 $\mathrm{nm}$ to 522.4 $\mathrm{nm}$b) $4.3 \times 10^{14} \mathrm{Hz}$$7.5 \times 10^{14} \mathrm{Hz}$c) $2.24 \times 10^{8} \mathrm{m} / \mathrm{s}$

Physics 102 Electricity and Magnetism

Physics 103

Chapter 23

Electromagnetic Waves and Propagationof Light

Electromagnetic Waves

Reflection and Refraction of Light

Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey

University of Washington

Simon Fraser University

Lectures

02:30

In optics, ray optics is a geometric optics method that uses ray tracing to model the propagation of light through an optical system. As in all geometric optics methods, the ray optics model assumes that light travels in straight lines and that the index of refraction of the optical material remains constant throughout the system.

10:00

In optics, reflection is the change in direction of a wavefront at an interface between two different media so that the wavefront returns into the medium from which it originated. Common examples include the reflection of light, sound and water waves. The law of reflection says that for specular reflection the angle at which the wave is incident on the surface equals the angle at which it is reflected. Reflection may also be referred to as "mirror image" or "specular reflection". Refraction is the change in direction of a wave due to a change in its speed. The refractive index of a material is a measure of its ability to change the direction of a wave. A material with a higher refractive index will change the direction of a wave to a greater degree than a material with a lower refractive index. When a wave crosses the boundary between two materials with different refractive indices, part of the wave is refracted; that is, it changes direction. The ratio of the speeds of propagation of the two waves determines the angle of refraction, which is the angle between the direction of the incident and the refractive rays.

05:32

Light Inside the Eye. The …

05:59

02:41

The vitreous humor, a tran…

06:49

05:06

08:40

BIO Light Inside the Eye. …

04:43

02:31

If the aqueous humor of th…

01:24

A parallel beam of light f…

01:02

Which of the following cor…

01:48

Imagine that you are stari…

01:26

Which of the following giv…

00:34

Behind the lens of the eye…

01:16

Vitreous chamber is fille…

01:46

The fluid filled in the sp…

Let's first figure out what the wavelength of violet light iss inside the eyeball. And so the Lambda violent light is equal to the land did not over the index of refraction as his land and not violently divided by the next one fraction of the fluid inside the eye. And so this is equal to 400 meters, and we're told the index is 1.34 And so this gives 2 99 Nana meters. Similarly, we're going to do it for red light. So the sequels landed. Not, but for redline or the index of refraction. And so this is 700 now, 700 animators of our own plane 34 And so this gives 522 Nana meters. And so this is the range here from 299 to 522 nanometers for be, we need to figure out the range and frequencies. And so to do this, we're going to use the formula that the frequency is the speed over the wavelength and we just calculate what the wavelengths were. And so let's figure out what the frequency for bio Linus Secret will see over Lambda V and so it's good. 03 times 10 to the eight meters per second over 2 99 Nana meters. And before you do this calculation out, make sure that you convert that to 99 centimeters and the meters or the three times 10 to the eight years for second into Nano meters per second. But that conversion must be done before this is actually plugged into the calculator. When you do that conversion and then you do this calculation, you get that This is 7.5 times 10 to the 14 hurts. And so let's do it again. Except for red Light. It's just like this and same thing. We're just going to play in this 5 22 But then we have to do a conversion and we do the same right three times, 10 to the eighth, divided by that 5.2 converted in the meters per second. And so this gives us 4.29 times 10 to the 14. It hurts, and so this is the range Here it goes from this value. Up to that valley sees a bit of a trick question because there is no range. They're travelling the same speed. And we can see this by this formal here the velocity and a medium, Mr Siegel, to the speed of light over the index of that medium. And so this is three times 10 to the eight meters per second over the 1.34 And so this gives 2.24 times 10 to the eight meters per second, and that's answer.

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