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$\bullet$ Light of original intensity $I_{0}$ passes through two ideal polarizing filters having their polarizing axes oriented as shown in Figure $23.62 .$ You want to adjust the angle $\phi$ so that the intensity at point $P$ is equal to $I_{0} / 10 .$ (a) If the original light is unpolarized, what should $\phi$ be? (b) If the original light is linearly polarized in the same direction as the polarizing axisof the first polarizer the light reaches, what should $\phi$ be?

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a) $63.43^{\circ}$b) $71.565^{\circ}$

Physics 102 Electricity and Magnetism

Physics 103

Chapter 23

Electromagnetic Waves and Propagationof Light

Electromagnetic Waves

Reflection and Refraction of Light

Cornell University

Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey

University of Washington

Hope College

Lectures

02:30

In optics, ray optics is a geometric optics method that uses ray tracing to model the propagation of light through an optical system. As in all geometric optics methods, the ray optics model assumes that light travels in straight lines and that the index of refraction of the optical material remains constant throughout the system.

10:00

In optics, reflection is the change in direction of a wavefront at an interface between two different media so that the wavefront returns into the medium from which it originated. Common examples include the reflection of light, sound and water waves. The law of reflection says that for specular reflection the angle at which the wave is incident on the surface equals the angle at which it is reflected. Reflection may also be referred to as "mirror image" or "specular reflection". Refraction is the change in direction of a wave due to a change in its speed. The refractive index of a material is a measure of its ability to change the direction of a wave. A material with a higher refractive index will change the direction of a wave to a greater degree than a material with a lower refractive index. When a wave crosses the boundary between two materials with different refractive indices, part of the wave is refracted; that is, it changes direction. The ratio of the speeds of propagation of the two waves determines the angle of refraction, which is the angle between the direction of the incident and the refractive rays.

05:31

Light of original intensit…

0:00

02:56

02:05

01:58

01:29

03:13

$\bullet$ A beam of unpola…

02:17

A beam of unpolarized ligh…

02:20

06:24

01:35

$\bullet$ Unpolarized ligh…

03:06

In the first part of this problem, we have to find the value of 5, for which the given condition holds so the intensity of light when it passes through the first polarizer, is written as a prime equals to 1 or 2 of i not where this. I note is the intensity of polarised light when the light passes through the second polarizon. Its intensity will be equals to y prime cosine square 5 point now in setting the value of i and i prime. We can write this equation, as i not divided by 10 equals to i not divided by 2 cosine square of 5. Well, now, solving this question for 5, we can write it as phi equals to r cosine of 1 divided by square root of 55. So this will give us the value for i y equals to 63.43 degreein part b of this problem. We have to calculate the value of the 5, which holds the given condition, so there will be no change in the intensity of light after passing through the first polarizer, so we can write i prime equals to i not now the intensity of light passing through the Second, polarizer will be, i equals to prime and then cosine square of pino, inserting the values into this equation. We can write. I has the value of i not divided by 10, and that is i not, and then we have cosine square of 5 point now. Solving this question: for 5, we can write y equals to arc cosine of 1 divided by square root of 10 point, so this will go as the value for fi is y equals to 71.57 degree. So this is the required answer. Thank.

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