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$\bullet$ On-demand water heaters. Conventional hot-water heaters consist of a tank of water maintained at a fixed temperature. The hot water is to be used when needed. The drawback is that energy is wasted because the tank loses heat when it is not in use, and you can run out of hot water if you use too much. Some utility companies are encouraging the use of on- demand water heaters (also known as flash heaters), which consist of heating units to heat the water as you use it. No water tank is involved, so no heat is wasted. A typical household shower flow rate is 2.5 gal $/ \min (9.46 \mathrm{L} / \mathrm{min}$ ) with the tap water being heated from $50^{\circ} \mathrm{F}\left(10^{\circ} \mathrm{C}\right)$ to $120^{\circ} \mathrm{F}\left(49^{\circ} \mathrm{C}\right)$ by the on-demand heater. What rate of heat input (either electrical or from gas) is required to operate such a unit, assuming that all the heat goes into the water?

$2.6 \times 10^{4} \mathrm{J} / \mathrm{s}$ or Watt

Physics 101 Mechanics

Chapter 14

Temperature and Heat

Thermal Properties of Matter

The First Law of Thermodynamics

University of Washington

Simon Fraser University

University of Sheffield

University of Winnipeg

Lectures

02:20

A solid, liquid, or gas is one of the three main states of matter. Solids have a definite shape and volume, and retain their shape when a force is applied to them. They are rigid, and do not flow to take on the shape of a container, but retain their own shape. Solids are held together by intermolecular forces, which are usually chemical bonds. Liquids have a free-flowing, continuous surface, and take the shape of a container. They flow to fill an available space. Their particles do not have a definite shape or volume, and they are not rigid. Gases have no definite shape or volume. They are not held together, and are not rigid. They flow to fill an available space. Gases are often described as being the state of matter with the lowest density.

03:25

The First Law of Thermodynamics is an expression of the principle of conservation of energy. The law states that the change in the internal energy of a closed system is equal to the amount of heat energy added to the system, minus the work done by the system on its surroundings. The total energy of a system can be subdivided and classified in various ways.

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or I guess it has taken the question. The question was asking us the rate of key chain, all these questions what we know read a huge entrances. Just power, which is even Uberti in his question. It was time about all the engine was converted into the heat. So it's a security with a Q is equal emceed hospitality, which is smashed hand subsidy times a changing temperature. So the rate of, uh, chanting red over he her per unit ties you could acute to our identity. And now that he's a time which is equal EMC has done t the other capital t go to I would divide by the dollhouse. Lower case t Okay. And we can get the m d y by delta t from the question Remember, he was talking about the water. The typical house shower flow rate is two point by a gallon per minute, which is about 9.46 later per minute. Okay. And we know the the density of water is one kilogram per leader. Okay, so this will give us m Della Tzu go to 9.46 killed. Where permitting. Remember, a minute is 62nd So it's 9.46 kilograms. Do you have my 60 seconds? Okay. And that would be the mass. Her second. Okay, Okay, we're in for a second. We know the specifics. She's the water is 41 90 Jew kill grand times, zero degree, fantastic three Celsius. And the data t just simply evil. Do t two dynasty one, which is 49 degrees Celsius. Mind this 10 degree Celsius is which Look, you asked 39 degrees Celsius. Okay, so So now we have all the valley as plugging to find out the answer. Okay, so P she was a que You've got our identity which is equal to 9.46 Jo Brand you are 62nd times. Well, im 90 Jew. Her killed Grant has degree Celsius times the changing temperature which was the united Resell GIs. Okay. And this will give us the p is equal to 2.6 times. Tend to a power for wants. Oh, non turn use Jew per second. Okay, so that's the answer for this question. And thank you

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