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$\bullet$$\bullet$ A wildlife photographer uses a moderate telephoto lens offocal length 135 $\mathrm{mm}$ and maximum aperture $f / 4.00$ to photo-graph a bear that is 11.5 $\mathrm{m}$ away. Assume the wavelength is550 $\mathrm{nm}$ . (a) What is the width of the smallest feature on thebear that this lens can resolve if it is opened to its maximumaperture? (b) If, to gain depth of field, the photographer stopsthe lens down to $f / 22.0,$ what would be the width of the small-est resolvable feature on the bear"?

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a) 0.23 mmb) 1.3 mm

Physics 102 Electricity and Magnetism

Physics 103

Chapter 26

Interference and Diffraction

Electromagnetic Waves

Reflection and Refraction of Light

University of Michigan - Ann Arbor

Simon Fraser University

Hope College

University of Sheffield

Lectures

02:30

In optics, ray optics is a geometric optics method that uses ray tracing to model the propagation of light through an optical system. As in all geometric optics methods, the ray optics model assumes that light travels in straight lines and that the index of refraction of the optical material remains constant throughout the system.

10:00

In optics, reflection is the change in direction of a wavefront at an interface between two different media so that the wavefront returns into the medium from which it originated. Common examples include the reflection of light, sound and water waves. The law of reflection says that for specular reflection the angle at which the wave is incident on the surface equals the angle at which it is reflected. Reflection may also be referred to as "mirror image" or "specular reflection". Refraction is the change in direction of a wave due to a change in its speed. The refractive index of a material is a measure of its ability to change the direction of a wave. A material with a higher refractive index will change the direction of a wave to a greater degree than a material with a lower refractive index. When a wave crosses the boundary between two materials with different refractive indices, part of the wave is refracted; that is, it changes direction. The ratio of the speeds of propagation of the two waves determines the angle of refraction, which is the angle between the direction of the incident and the refractive rays.

06:05

A wildlife photographer us…

04:43

Photography. A wildlife ph…

04:29

An underwater camera has a…

03:42

A person on a safari wants…

07:12

06:21

Underwater Photography. An…

16:05

02:22

A nature photographer is u…

in part they were going to start by using rallies criterion. And so we have. The resolution angle is equal to 1.22 times land over D. Playing in the Lambda, which is 559 meters, and the D, which is 135 over four millimeters, I get a resolution angle of 1.99 times 10 to the minus five raids and so on. The bear this singles of tens of distance X and so if that's the case, then this angle the resolution angle is equal to the amount on the bear that it's attends over the distance to the bear. And so axe is equal to our terms of resolution angle filling in this and the distance to the bear, which we know to be 11 and 1/2 meters. I get in next value of 2.29 times 10 to the minus four meters, which is also equal to 0.23 millimeters. And that's the answer to party. In part, be noticed that F 22 here D is for over 22 times as large, so it's actually smaller as four. Now, if we look at relays. Criterion, which is state, is equal to 1.22 Lambda or D. We see that they is proportional to one over D and then buy our other relationship. They does equal to exit. Where are we? See that data is proportional to X, so access proportional to one over D. Since these air proportional to each other and that is proportional to one over D. X must also be proportional to one already, and D is for 22 for over 22 times as large. And so what we do is we take our previous X, which we found in part A to be this 0.23 millimeters like that and we multiplied by 22 or four. And since they're inversely proportional, we have to invert this and we multiplied by a previous execute our new max, which is 1.3 millimeters. And that's answer

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